Diabetes Type 1 Diabetes

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Type 1 diabetes is a result of autoimmune destruction and is one of the most common disease of childhood. (Atkinson & Skyler, 2012). The disease is characterized by high bold sugar level. People suffer type 1 diabetes with any blood glucose concentration higher than 11.1 mmol/L or fasting blood glucose greater than 7mmol/L which is a double of normal range of blood sugar level. (Atkinson & Eisenbarth,2001) Glucose is one of the most important energy source of human. Through glycolysis and Krebs cycle, glucose are broken down and energy released is captured as ATP. (Alberts, Johnson & Lewis, 2002) ATP is the intermediate energy source for human and be consumed in all active reaction in human. Since all the process of cellular respiration is occur in cell, glucose have to be transport into cell from blood with assist of pancreas. The essay explore the normal function of pancreas and the role it play in controlling blood glucose level. Unaffected functioning of insulin producing beta-cell is examined and compared with the cells in the disease state. In addition, the essay analyses the mechanism of the drug treatment insulin and identifies its effects on human.
Before exanimating the pathophysiology of type 1 diabetes, the physiology of the normal functioning of blood sugar level control should be discussed. The pancreas is a tadpole shape organs of the endocrine system and digestive system (Best health channel, 2013) which located behind the stomach. It plays an important role in controlling blood sugar level. Human have the ability to digest carbohydrate and other sugar like starch obtain from food and break down into glucose (whfood, 2014). After a meal, the plasma glucose concentration rise and stimulus beta cell of islets to sec...

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...other type of insulin therapy which injected insulin through a needle inserted in patient which connected to small device though flexible plastic tube (America diabetes association, 2013). Patient can have a better control of inulin delivery than traditional injection.

Type 1 diabetes is the result of pathological changes in the immune system, in particular the expansion of T cell that led to beta cell in islet loss. The death of beta cell adversely affects endocrine system functioning and raise blood sugar concentration associated with the disease. Besides that, there is death of different cells around the body due to the lack of glucose transport into cell. The drug treatment insulin assists through compensation for the loss of beta cell. Thus it allows more insulin available for activate glucose channels embedded in membrane to transport glucose into the cell.
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