Description of the disease Diabetes is known to be a heterogeneous disorder which has characteristics of persistent hyperglycemia. There are two major types of diabetes that include type 1 diabetes previously referred to as insulin-dependent diabetes and type 2 diabetes previously referred to as non insulin-dependent diabetes. These types of diabetes are known to be caused by a combination of environmental and genetical risk factors. However, we have other diabetes rare forms that are seen to be inherited directly. They include diabetes that result from mutations in the mitochondrial DNA and ‘‘maturity onset diabetes in the young’’ (MODY).
References http://www.healthline.com/health/type-2-diabetes#text3 Alemzadeh R, Ali O. Diabetes mellitus. In: Kliegman RM, ed. Kliegman: (2011). Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 19th ed.
According to the World Health Organization, type 1 diabetes is rare in most African, Native American, and Asian populations. The same cannot be said for type 2-diabetes that affects these ethnic groups. (World Health Organization Reasearch , 2013) Type 1 diabetes is considered to be an autoimmune disorder that involves the pancreas and its insulin production. The cells that are involved in insulin production are called beta cells and they produce insulin in the pancreas. The Islets of Langerhans contain beta cells and are located within the pancreas.
There are two types of diabetes mellitus particularly type 1 and type 2 (refer to Figure 1). Abbas, Aster, Fausto and Kumar (2010) stated that type 1 diabetes mellitus is an autoimmune disease whereby destruction of islet is primarily because of immune effector cells reacting against endogenous B-cell antigens. Besides that, Imagawa, Hanafusa, Miyagawa, and Matsuzawa (2000) reported that type 1 diabetes can be divided further as autoimmune (type 1A) and idiopathic ( type 1B), and this idiopathic diabetes have a nonautoimmune, fulminant disease categorized by nonappearance of insulin and of diabetes-related antibodies. The aetiology of type 1 diabetes mellitus involves genetic susceptibility and environ... ... middle of paper ... ...nisms Linking Obesity to Insulin Resistance and Type 2 Diabetes. Nature.
Zimmet, Paul, Alberti KG, Shaw Jonathan (December 2001). "Global and societal implications of the diabetes epidemic". “type 2 Diabetes.” PubMed Health. A.S>A.M., Inc., May 10 2010. Web.
Diabetes mellitus, commonly known as diabetes, is categorized into type 1, insulin dependent, and type 2, insulin resistant, and the focus will be on the former. Type 1diabetes is a chronic autoimmune disease occurring when insulin-producing beta cells are destroyed by autoreactive CD8 T cells.1 Beta cells are endocrine cells that only secrete insulin and are found in the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. When the first clinical symptoms of diabetes are apparent in a patient, 80% of the beta cells have already been destroyed.1When large amounts of beta cells are destroyed, it only leaves a fraction of insulin left for the body to utilize, which is often not enough to support function. Type 1 diabetes affects an estimated 30 million people worldwide.1 There is no cure for type 1 diabetes and someone with this disease would need to monitor their blood glucose levels and manually give themselves insulin injections to regulate those levels. However, using insulin injections is not a cure.
Diabetes Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder that "occurs when the body is unable to produce or respond to insulin, a hormone that allows blood glucose to enter the cells of the body and generate the body's energy" (Ebony, 115). Diabetes is a disease that affects approximately 3% of the world' population. In American alone, 10.3 million people report having diabetes, while an estimated 10 million more individuals may have undiagnosed diabetes (Morwessel, 540). The gene for diabetes is located in the HLA region on chromosome 6, and the most probable organization of the responsible gene is on a 19-kb region of INS-IGF2, which affects HLA-DR4 IDDM susceptibility. Diabetes Mellitus, was first diagnosed in the year 1000 BC, by the father of Indian medicine, Susrata of the Hindus (Knott, 539).
Glucose Tolerance Test: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. Retrieved Feb. 3, 2014, from U.S National Library of Medicine: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003466.htm NIDDK. (2012, June 19). National Diabetes InformationClearinghouse (NDIC). (R. Little , Editor) Retrieved Feb. 03, 2014, from The A1C Test and Diabetes: http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/dm/pubs/A1CTest/ Norman, G. D., & Steyn, P. S. (2013).
Diabetes Mellitus Introduction Diabetes Mellitus, as defined by the American Diabetes Association, is “a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both”(Diagnosis and Clarification,” 2008). There are many different types of diabetes, with the two most familiar forms being type 1, and type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes, previously referred to as “juvenile-diabetes”, only accounts for 5-10% of individuals diagnosed with diabetes. It has been discovered that serological evidence of a pathologic, autoimmune process happening in the pancreatic islets and genetic markers are both precursors for at risk individuals (“Report of,” 2003). Type 2 diabetes, the vastly more predominant form of diabetes, accounts for roughly 95 % of individuals affected by diabetes mellitus, and stems from an insulin resistance that is gradually increases with time (“Diagnosis and Clarification,” 2008).