Diabetes Mellitus

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Diabetes mellitus is a collection of common metabolic disorders. The scenario of passing large amount of urine is described by the Greek and Roman physicians as diabetes whereas the term mellitus refers to sweet taste (Barrett, Barman, Boitano, & Brooks, 2012). The name of the disease reveals one of the important clinical manifestation, that is, passing sweet-tasted urine, and in the other word, the presence of sugar in the urine. Besides that, Funk (2010) stated that there are three most common symptoms in diabetes mellitus, which are polyuria (large volume of urine), polydipsia (excessive thrist), and polyphagia (excessive eating). Lecthuman et al. (2010) revealed that overall prevalence of diabetes mellitus in Malaysia, during year 2006 was 11.6 percent. Among the three races, the Indians show the highest prevalence of 19.9 percent followed by Malays 11.9 percent and lastly the Chinese with 11.4 percent. Diabetes mellitus can be discussed in several aspects, such as classification, complications , and treatment and management. There are two types of diabetes mellitus particularly type 1 and type 2 (refer to Figure 1). Abbas, Aster, Fausto and Kumar (2010) stated that type 1 diabetes mellitus is an autoimmune disease whereby destruction of islet is primarily because of immune effector cells reacting against endogenous B-cell antigens. Besides that, Imagawa, Hanafusa, Miyagawa, and Matsuzawa (2000) reported that type 1 diabetes can be divided further as autoimmune (type 1A) and idiopathic ( type 1B), and this idiopathic diabetes have a nonautoimmune, fulminant disease categorized by nonappearance of insulin and of diabetes-related antibodies. The aetiology of type 1 diabetes mellitus involves genetic susceptibility and environ... ... middle of paper ... ...nisms Linking Obesity to Insulin Resistance and Type 2 Diabetes. Nature. 444(7121):840-6. Letchuman, G. R., Wan Nazaimoon, W. M., Wan Mohamad, W. B, Chandran, L. R., Tee, G.H., Jamaiyah, H., Isa, M. R., Zanariah, H., Fatanah, I., Ahmad Faudzi, Y. (2010). Prevalence of Diabetes in the Malaysian National Health Morbidity Survey III 2006. Medical journal of Malaysia. 65(3):173-179. Molina P.E. (2013). Chapter 7. Endocrine Pancreas. In P.E. Molina (Ed), Endocrine Physiology (4th ed.). Retrieved October 22, 2013 from http://www.accessmedicine.com/content.aspx?aID=57307793. Neal, M. J. (2005). Medical pharmacology at a glance. London, UK: Blackwell Publishing. Powers, A. C. (2005). Diabetes mellitus. In D. L. Kasper, E. Braunwald, A. S. Fauci, S. L. Hauser, J. L. Jameson & D. L. Longo (Eds.). Harrison’s principles of internal medicine (p.2152). US: McGraw-Hill Companies.

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