Diabetes Mellitus

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Diabetes mellitus (DM) or simply diabetes, is a chronic health condition in which the body either fails to produce the amount of insulin needed or it responds inadequately to the insulin secreted by the pancreas. The three primary types of diabetes are: Diabetes Type 1 and 2, and during some pregnancies, Gestational diabetes. The cliché for all three types of diabetes is high glucose blood levels or hyperglycemia. The pathophysiology of all types of diabetes mellitus is related to the hormone insulin, which is secreted by the beta cells of the pancreas. This hormone is responsible for maintaining an optimal glucose level in the blood. It allows the body cells to use glucose as a main energy source. Due to abnormal insulin metabolism, in a diabetic person, the body cells and tissues cannot make use of glucose from the blood, resulting in elevated blood glucose level or hyperglycemia. Over time, elevated blood glucose level in the bloodstream can lead to severe complications, such as disorders of the eyes, cardiovascular diseases, kidney damage and nerve destruction. In Type 1 diabetes, the pancreas is not able to produce sufficient amount of insulin as required for the body. The pathophysiology of type 1 diabetes suggests that it’s an autoimmune disease, in which the body’s own immune system generates secretions of substances that attack the beta cells of the pancreas leading to low or no insulin secretion. This is more common in children and young adults before the age of thirty. Type 1 is also referred as Insulin dependent Diabetes Mellitus or Juvenile Diabetes, exogenous insulin is needed for its treatment. In type 2 diabetes mellitus we find insulin resistance with varying degrees of insulin secretory defects and is more comm... ... middle of paper ... ... advice to wear comfortable shoes, preferable leather, and not to walk barefoot. Maintaining proper weight and exercising regularly is essential. Early and correct detection of the type of diabetes is necessary to prevent severe health complications. Reference List Bernstein, R. (2007). Dr. Bernstein’s diabetes solution, New York, Little, Brown and Company Becker, G. (2011). Type 2 diabetes, New York, Marlowe & Company Khardori, R. (2011). Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. Retrieved from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/117739-overview Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/type-1-diabetes/DS00329/DSECTION=ca 1998-2012 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER). By Mayo Clinic Staff Silvestri, L. (2010). Comprehensive review for the nclex-pn examination Saunders; 4 edition Linda Anne Silvestri (March 5, 2009)

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