Diabetes Essay

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Diabetes mellitus is a chronic and life threatening disease that has become a major health problem worldwide. In the United States, Diabetes is the leading cause of health complications, including new cases of blindness, end stage liver disease, and leg or foot amputation (Rosdahl, 2008). According to the American Diabetes association, 25.8 million children and adults in the United States have diabetes. In 2007, diabetes was listed as the underlying cause on 71,382 death certificates and was listed as a contributing factor on an additional 160,022 death certificates. Diabetes Mellitus is a metabolic disorder in which the body does not produce or properly use insulin, resulting in high blood sugar. There are 3 types of diabetes; type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes. Although the disease can be considered deadly, diabetes is very manageable if one adjusts necessary lifestyle and behavioral changes. Type 1 diabetes is typically diagnosed in children and young adults, also known as juvenile diabetes or insulin dependent diabetes. Only 5 % of people with diabetes have this form of the disease which is a condition that results from autoimmune destruction of beta cells of the pancreas (Jacobs, 1994). In type 1 diabetes, the body does not produce insulin. Insulin is essential for the conversion of sugar and starches into energy that the body needs to function. The substantial lack of insulin causes blood and urine glucose to increase. In the path physiology of the disease, a triggering event causes the production of antibodies that kill the beta cells which leads to a decline in insulin secretion. Once the insulin deficiency occurs, and more than 90 % of beta cells are destroyed, hyperglycemia occurs (Rosdahl, 2008). An individual... ... middle of paper ... ...igher. Blood glucose levels can exceed 600 which is very dangerous. An individual who is experiencing this state would exhibit signs of gradual infection due to stressors or decrease fluid intake, altered central nervous system function with altered level of consciousness, increased thirst, increased uriniation, high fever, drowsiness, headache, restlessness, visual problems, and hallucinations. When treating this condition, an IV with half normal saline with regular insulin is used to correct electrolyte deficit. Unfortuantely, diabetes mellitus can create further health complication that can be life threatening. The most common complication is cardiovascular disease. MI is the leading cause of death among diabetes patients. Diabetes damages the arterial circulation of the brain, posing a greater risk for a stroke. Most common sign of intermittent claudification.

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