Cognitive development involves the mental activities of comprehending information and the processes of acquiring, organizing, remembering, and using knowledge (Rathus, 2011). According to Piaget’s (1964) stage theory, the development of knowledge is a spontaneous process linked to the development of the body, nervous system and mental functions. To comprehend the development of knowledge, we begin with the idea of operation, which is to incorporate a concept, value, or scheme into part of ones mental structure. In other words, the developing child builds cognitive structures or networked concepts for understanding and responding to physical objects and experiences within his or her environment. The interaction between the child and his or... ... middle of paper ... ...opment in children: Piaget development and learning.
Cognitive development is concerned with the many ways in which children’s thinking develops in stages of life to adulthood. Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky two influential developmental psychologists, play an important role in developing a scientific approach to examining the cognitive development process of a child. As similar as their theories are, they have numerous differences. Piaget’s theory of cognitive development is a comprehensive theory about the nature and development of human intelligence. The theory deals with the nature of knowledge itself and how humans gradually come to acquire, construct, and use it.
2.4.2 The Constructivist Theory The Constructivist Theory of child development believes that learning is hierarchical. When teaching the child, new learning needs to connect to prior learning. Learning is sequential in nature. Human beings need to link new information to knowledge that is already established in memory (as cited by Feinstein, 2006). Piaget (1974), a constructivist, believed that learning starts as early as babyhood, beginning with things that are innate, such as reflexes and information taken in through the senses.
Jean Piaget (1896 - 1980) looked at how children reason and think. He looked at whether children see and make sense of the world in the same way that adults do. Piaget's theory explores how children's thought processes change with development. Piaget's theory identifies four developmental stages which are sensori-motor stage, preoperational stage, concrete operations and formal operations (Smith, Cowie, Blades. 2011 P.392).
Children usually progress through a set pattern of stages, unless a child has additi... ... middle of paper ... ...rticle/nature-nurture/ Schaffer, R. (1996). Social Development. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers. Schaffer, R. (2004). Introducing child psychology.
Piaget believed that children learn through organization and schemes and that learning was biologically connected. According to this theory, children organize ideas into schemes. When new information comes along, they incorporate it into the ‘schemes’ that they already know. If there isn’t an existing scheme, the information is organized into a ‘new’ scheme, therefore, they are accommodating for the new information. All of the information that is stored is kept in check by what Piaget referred to this as equilibration which is how the human brain balances information against reality.
This paper will focus on the psychological aspects of childhood play behavior and its relation to cognitive development. According to the cognitive development theory, the purpose of play is to develop intelligence. While children play, it is theorized that they are able to learn to solve problems (Wyver & Spence, 1999). One of the most influential contributors to understanding play was Jean Piaget. According to his theory, all people must adapt to the environment through assimilation and accommodation.
During this stage, children begin to use language as a way of communication and their memory and imagination develop. They also engage in role play and in symbols which allows flexibility and planning in their problem solving skills. During this stage, children think that all people view the world as they see. They begin to remember past events and even imagine future events. Concrete operational is the next stage of Jean Piaget theory of child development, this occurs between seven and eleven years.
I considered Vygotsky’s concept of the zone of proximal development. The learning process according to Lev Vygotsky (10 marks – 400wrds Lev Vygotsky’s theory of learning begins with the idea that cognitive development occurs from sociocultural origins, that through social interaction children learn how to think (Duchesne, McMaugh, Bochner & Krause pp. 84) and how to use and access language and communication skills specifically as members of their culture and society. Through social interaction, for example a parent with their child, the parent will provide interaction that is tied to their own cultural background and social situation and beliefs. The child experiences the interaction and learns communication and language through the parent.
Rhodes, M., Gelman, S. A., & Brickman, D. (2008). Developmental changes in the consideration of sample diversity in inductive reasoning. Journal of Cognition and Development, 9, 112-143. doi: 10.1080/15248370701836626 Sloutsky, V. M. & Fisher, A. V. (2004). Induction and categorization in young children: A similarity-based model. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 133, 166-188. doi: 10.1037/0096-3418.104.22.168