The official nuclear policy of the United States was one of "massive retaliation", as coined by President Eisenhower, which called for massive nuclear attack against the Soviet Union if they were to invade Europe. It was only with the advent of ballistic missile submarines, starting with the George Washington class submarine in 1959, that a survivable nuclear force became possible and that a second strike capability became credible. It was generally assumed that any combat in Europe would end with apocalyptic conclusions. An idea that has not sunk into the politicians and generals of the nuclear powers skulls is the fact that nuclear weapons are expensive. In 1983, a missile submarine cost more than the education budgets of twenty-three 3rd world countries.
As a result of radar, “surprise attacks” became obsolete and military strategies had to adapt and... ... middle of paper ... ...advantages or reacted to the research initiatives of other nations.” Effectively the dropping of the atomic bomb ended the Second World War, but its blast radius on history has extended until today. The constant competitive development of powerful weapons is what fueled the Cold War. Ever since then, nuclear war has been an enormous threat to the world (World War II: Aerial Innovations). The speedy development of new technologies eternally altered the methods in which wars are conducted and how society operates. Radar produced the ability to locate far away objects, whether it is oncoming enemies or a rain storm.
Nuclear weapons were both the good and the bad of the Cold War. The production of Nuclear Weapons created vagueness, doubt, and skepticism between countries because they never knew when the Cold War would go into action. Furthermore, they always had to be aware of their position because things could be mistaken as a gathering of ammunition in attempt to soon start a war. They were good however because of the advancement that it created in weapons and technology we have presently. Nuclear Weapons were an influential part of warfare that altered the way wars would be fought from the end of the Cold War on.
After the Soviets detonated its own bomb in September 1949, the Truman administration abandoned its policy of natural deterrence and ordered the development of more powerful hydrogen thermonuclear bomb. Since Soviet nuclear bombs deterred US deterrence, Truman sought a way to restore deterrence. He ordered a study by the Department of State’s policy planning staff and the result, NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL PAPER 68 (NSC-68), went to Tru... ... middle of paper ... ...r weapons that would give him the leadership in Arab world and he could organize and lead an alliance against Israel. The increasing proliferation of nuclear technology in areas of simmering regional conflicts increases the probability of nuclear war. During the 50 years of existence, the real function of nuclear power was changed from direct use as a weapon of war through deterrence tool to the ticket to nuclear club that means the sing of superpower.
Nuclear testing was a global issue during the 1960s. With threats of nuclear war from the communist countries of the Russia, Cuba and China, the United States was anxious to protect itself with a nuclear arsenal of its own. After the nuclear bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki to end World War II, the United States did additional nuclear tests in the Marshall Islands, Nevada and New Mexico. General knowledge of nuclear radiation was minimal to the public at that time and the United States government could not warn their citizens about the dangerous effects of exposure to nuclear radiation. The diseases and disorders that arose as result of nuclear testing could have been prevented if the government of the United States had advised people about radiation and had implemented a mandatory evacuation around the test areas.
Iraq proved to the world that small countries do have the power and means necessary to pose a serious threat with their near successful construction of a nuclear weapon. This potentially harmful scenario woke the world, emphasizing the importance of keeping a tight nuclear watch on one another, stepping up measures to prevent any nuclear threat, and discouraging any exterior support of such a group. The construction process of a nuclear bomb takes many materials, experts, advanced reactors, a lot of money, and a host country in which to construct the weapons, all of which is possible but difficult to fully accomplish. Iraq started recruiting... ... middle of paper ... ...the Autumn 1985 issue of Orbis "Terrorists want a lot of people watching, not a lot of people dead." No one wants to experience a nuclear war situation because everybody is aware of the potential destruction.
Nuclear Limitations and Disarmament When a lone B-29 flew over Hiroshima on August 29, 1945, the first nuclear weapon changed the course of international trust and relations. From that point on, countries tried to control each other with building and stockpiling superior nuclear arms. The question of nuclear limitations and of nuclear disarmament finally came under world review. The idea of one country possessing enough firepower to destroy the world is thoughtprovoking, but a look at the nuclear proponents brings up several good points. The concept of a world free of nuclear energy and weapons would shock most people.
The formation of these alliances had been preceded by an arms race in which both the two major powers were trying to overpower each other in terms of military equipment. The Soviet Union had tried its first atomic weapon in 1949, and this greatly shocked the Americans as it had happened very early than expected. Truman had responded to this by authorizing the development of thermonuclear weapons or hydrogen bombs. They controlled the Asia effect by exploding the H-bomb which was smaller in size than the Hiroshima atomic bomb but 2500 times powerful compared to it. The Russians were however not willing to give up, and in 1953, they also managed to produce an H-bomb.
Considering that the Soviets did not have the capabilities to track the submarine, America had major strategic advantages and this put them ahead in the arms race. The new submarine was therefore described as America's new capital ship. Cuba was considered as Americas 'Back-yard', America saw that if any enemy took over Cuba they would have a major security risk on their hands. This is exactly what occurred in the Cuban Missile Crisis. Cuba was run by a very corrupt government... ... middle of paper ... ...ay never have sub-sided and finalized in nuclear war and essentially mutually assured destruction.
Many, many nations have developed nuclear weapons since the Hiroshima bombing and these nations have the capabilities to do to the United States what the United States did to Japan. In 1945, the world was on the brink of nuclear holocaust. Although the world has settled in to more peaceful times since then, the world still fears another conflict which could extinguish the entire human race (58 Sagan). The first post-war effects of the United States' use of the atomic bomb was the Cold War and more specifically the Cuban missile crisis. The U.S., the sole-possessor of atomic weapons at the time, was upset at the Soviets policy of expanding westward.