McDonald's: "think global, act local" - the marketing mix. British Food Journal , 103(2), pp. 97-111. Vrontis , D., 2003. Integrating adaptation and standardisation in international marketing , the AdaptStand modelling process.
‘Reform Strategies in Transitional Economies: Lessons from Asia’, World Development, Volume 23(7): 1157-1169 Schick, A., 1998. Why Most Developing Countries Should Not Try New Zealand Reforms, Prem Seminar Series, Public Sector Group, The World Bank. Turner, M. And Hulme, D., 1997. Governance, Administration and Development: Making the State Work, Macmillan, London.
Accordingly, there is danger in having an all-powerful state because personal freedoms are lost. More so, there is power in having knowledge that others do not possess because it is a gateway for the government to control the public if scientific and technological advances are been made. As mentioned before, governments prosper when there is stability and commodification is way of the government achieving that although it does alter human behavior. On the other hand, some would argue that modern society is based on democracy and a controlled state as depicted in Brave New World is impossible to occur but there are indicators in society today that serve as a resemblance. Brave New World emphasizes that the dangers of an all-powerful state, power of knowledge, and commodification are detrimental to modern society.
Although the New Public Management often is associated with such a perspective on a policy level, New Public Management is not about whether tasks should be undertaken or not. It is about getting things done better. New Public Management was devised as a means to improve efficiency and responsiveness to political changes. Its origins were in parliamentary democracies with excessively strong executive powers, centralized governments, and not much administrative law. In this setting, New Public Management embodies the idea of a chain of contracts leading to a single ministerial person who is interested in getting better results within a sector over which he or she has significant and relatively unchallenged control.
Wagner, E. (2000), ‘‘Communities of practice: the structure of knowledge stewarding’’, in Despres, C. and Chauvel, D. (Eds), The Present and the Promise of Knowledge Management, Butterworth-Heinemann, Boston, MA, pp. 205-24. Wheelen T.L. and Hunger J.D. (2004): Strategic Management and Business Policy, Pearson Education, U.K. Winter, S.G. (1987), ‘‘Knowledge and competence as strategic assets’’, in Teece, D.J.
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Then the concept of CSR began to actively evolve and many views on what CSR should be emerged. As a result for the present moment there is ambiguity as to how CSR should be deﬁned. Different authors of academic literature and different companies consider CSR with small or even big differences. For instance, CSR is defined by the European Commission very broadly as “the responsibility of enterprises for their impacts on society” (European Commission, 2014). World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) defines CSR as “the continuing commitment by business to contribute to economic development while improving the quality of life of the workforce and their families as well as of the community and society at large."
However, despite the tight control, it does not necessarily mean workers will be too much-exploited (Taylor: Pfiffner 2004 p. 1). Hence, in this classical theory, implementing the leadership role to erect the regulations within the organization is very dominant. While in Public Management or New Public Management, the indicator of someone is considering as successful or not is through the agreed target oriented, and to meet the target they were given little flexibility, so that it can run it is fullest in accordance with market expectation. This is an answer to the impasse goes on a classical model, as stated by Pollit and Bouckaert (2011) that New Public Management was trying to improve the effectiveness of public management through the application of market oriented, with injecting business methods. Where is the need to achieve requiring a market-type mechanism, performance indicators, targets, competitive contracts, and a quasi-market.
(2009, June 10). press/releases/tg163.htm. Retrieved June 5, 2011, from U.S. Treasury: www.tisreas.gov Walker, R. M., Damanpour, F., & Devece, C. A. (2011). Management Innovation and Organizational Performance: The Mediating Effect of Performance Management.