(2008). Colonization, Fomites, and Virulence: Rethinking the Pathogenesis of Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infection. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 46(5), 752-760. doi:10.1086/526773 Newland, J. G., & Kearns, G. L. (2008). Treatment Strategies for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infections in Pediatrics. Pediatric Drugs, 10(6), 367-378.
Combination of autoantibodies and auto antigens form, circulate, and are deposited within capillary complexes, renal glomeruli, renal interstitial, serosal membranes and the choroid plexus and in the pleural vasculature (McDonald, Compston, Edan, Goodkin, Hartung, & Lublin, 2001). The formation of these immune complexes triggers an inflammatory response, leading to chronic destruction of host tissue. Lupus has very complex symptoms that are not easy to identify. There are however chief complain that you likely to hear from your patient and this is fatigue, headache, fever, malaise, nausea, vomiting, anorexia, weight loss and abdominal pain (Wong, Ho and Lam, 2000). Lupus has signs and symptoms that are ranging from internal and physical symptoms.
St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby. Nudelman, Y., & Tunkel, A. R. (2009). Bacterial meningitis. Drugs, 69(18), 2577-2596. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.2165/11530590-000000000-00000 Van, d. B., Brouwer, M. C., Thwaites, G. E., & Tunkel, A. R. (2012). Advances in treatment of bacterial meningitis.
Staphylococcus aureus is also associated with soft tissue infection as well as toxic shock syndrome and has been found to be the causative agent in pneumonia, boils, arthritis, meningitis and osteomyelitis. The pathogenic abilities of Staphylococcus are most commonly associated with the toxins it produces in the stationary phase of the bacterial growth curve (2). Impetigo involves an infection of the superficial, top layers, of the skin. It is characterized by the development of red blisters that start to rupture and ooze fluid. A yellowish or honey colored crust then develops.
This essay intends to compare two diseases, Multiple sclerosis (MS) and Crohn’s disease (CD), in order to evaluate the statement “apart from anatomical location, pathological processes in the CNS and the rest of the body are the same.” Both MS and CD belong to a group of diseases which share common inflammatory pathways, called immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) (Kuek, A., et al. 2007). An imbalance in the cytokines within these conditions are central to the pathogenesis of the diseases (Hur, S. J., et al., 2012). CD is characterised by a relapsing inflammatory process which manifests within the gut and is mediated by T cells (Kuek, A., et al. 2007).
Cellulitis is an “opportunistic” infection which occurs through breaks in the skin. Redness, warmth, swelling and pain are symptoms of this infection. Seeking medical attention is a must for this infection. Cellulitis: A Skin Bacterial Infection 3 Cellulitis Infection Cellulitis is an acute spreading bacterial infection of the connective tissue, dermis and subcutaneous layers of the skin (ProQuest 07/2012 pg.5). Characterized by redness, swelling, warmth, tight/shiny skin and pain.
Necrotizing Fasciitis can be caused by various types of bacteria and can be classified into three types according to its microbiology . Type I, is a polymcrobial infection with aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, and it usually occurs in patients with immuno-compromise or chronic disease. Type II, or Group A Streptococcal (GAS), and this is the so-called flesh-eating bacterial infection. Type III, is gas gangrene, or clostridial myonecrosis. This skeletal muscle infection may be associated with recent trauma or surgery.
Inflammation can trigger a cascade of event which may cause multiple organ damage, leading to multiple failure of organs where the body is unable to function normally. In worst scenario, infection can lead to an increase in low blood pressure which rapidly leads to the failure of several organs causing death. Besides causing inflammation, it also causes increased in coagulation, decreased fibrinolysis and decreases the amount of activated protein C in the body (Tazbir, 2004). Protein C is a soluble and vitamin K dependent (Toussaint and Gerlach, 2009) molecule that are produced in our body which aids in the prevention of blood clotting. These proteins are initially in an inactive form, and are being activated when thrombin binds to thrombomodulin (Tazbir, 2004).
Pathophysiology RA is a mediated inflammatory process that triggers an autoimmune response. The result is in the production of antibodies and inflammatory cytokines that over time destroys bone, cartilage, tendons, ligaments and blood vessels (Dewing, Setter, & Slusher, 2012). Although joints are the primary areas of destruction, the inflammatory process can also affect various organs, such as heart tissue including the heart values, visceral layers of the lung and brain, spleen, sclera and larynx (Dunphy, Windland-Brown, Porter, & Thomas 2011). If RA is not treated promptly or if the patient does not respond to treatment, irrevocable bone deformity, bone erosion and immobility is often the sequelae. Standards of treatment According to the American College of Rheumatology (ARC) (2012) and recommendations by the International Task Force of Rheumatologists (2010) treatment is aimed at remission, reduction of the inflammatory response, pain control, conserving joint function and preventing and/or halting joint destruction.
Pathophysiology of Meningitis and Encephalitis Meningitis and encephalitis are two similar infections of the central nervous system that often lead to fatality of the host organism. Both diseases occur when pathogens enter the blood stream and gain access into the central nervous system. Stimulating inflammation within the cranial cavity, the pathogens continue to multiply and take harmful effects on the host. Inflammation, the body’s response to infection, ultimately causes all of the symptoms and complications of meningitis and encephalitis. The pathophysiology of meningitis and encephalitis aids in the explanation and understanding of the symptoms, effects, and underlying agendas of the two infections.