Dermatology and Acne Vulgaris

This essay will start by covering several facts about the functions, layers, skin appendages, and cells found in the human skin. Then it will discuss how the skin is altered in the diseased state and several different signs that give indication of the skin being in the diseased state. Next the essay will cover symptoms associated with acne vulgaris. Lastly it will go over treatments for acne vulgaris which include diet and/or medicines.

The functions, layers, skin appendages, and cells found in the skin.

Balaban and Bobick (2008) state that skin has several different functions and that these functions are significant. The outer skin cells are lifeless and keratinized which makes the skin waterproof. Skin also functions as a barricade against things such as abrasions as well as bacteria and viruses. Skin helps in the regulation of body temperature and contains receptors that receive the sensations of touch, vibration, pain, and temperature. Balaban and Bobick (2008) also state that, “Skin is a tissue membrane which consists of layers of epithelial and connective tissues” (p.42). Epidermis is the outer layer of the skins epithelial tissue and dermis is the inner layer of the connective tissue and a basement membrane separates the two layers. The appendages of the skin include sebaceous glands, sudoriferous glands, hair, and nails (Dr. Grass, 2013). Balaban and Bobick (2008) state that, “Scientists estimate there are between 50 and 100 trillion cells in the human body” (p. 27). Cells are constantly dying and new cells are always replacing them. These are normal functions of the skin, but skin functions can be altered during the diseased state.

The normal anatomy and physiology of the skin is altered in the diseased state.

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...S., Hurtado M., Hill K., Eaton B. S., Brand-Miller J. (December 2002). Acne vulgaris: A disease of western civilization. Retrieved November 11, 2013, from:

Salmon N., Constantine L., (October 13, 2011).’s Assessment Series:
Skin Anatomy, Physiology, and Assessment. AMN Healthcare Education Services. Retrieved November 11, 2013, from: Cordain L., PhD; Lindeberg S., MD, PhD; Hurtado M., PhD; Hill K., PhD; Eaton S., MD; Brand-Miller J., PhD. (December 2002). Acne Vulgaris: A Disease of Western Civilization. Retrieved November 11, 2013, from:

Rycroft R., Robertson S., Wakelin S. (2010). Dermatology : A Colour Handbook. London, GBR: CRC Press

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