The Soviet Union took advantage of Eastern Europe's situation in the aftermath of World War II. It began to take control of many of these countries and install Communist governments. The Soviet Union wanted to use these countries as buffer zones to protect their sovereignty in the future. Two of the countries that they were attempting to take over were Turkey and Greece. Early in 1947 the British said they could no longer support the Greek government.
The United States decided to assist the standing government in Greece because they believed it would have a large impact on Europe and most importantly Turkey that was having its own problems with communism and was strategically located next to large oil reserves of Iran. Congress approved $300 million to aid Greece and $100 million in food and military expenses to aid Turkey. The second large step in containment was the Marshall Plan. Proposed by Secretary of State George Marshall, it would provide economic relief to rebuilding Western European nations such as Great Britain, France, Belgium and even... ... middle of paper ... ...ed to nationalize the Suez Canal through which three fourths of all European oil is passed. After several months of negotiations Britain, France and Israel attacked Egypt and retook the canal.
The relation ship between America and Turkey has improved from 1947. In this relation the geopolitical position of Turkey plays a big role. The Truman Doctrine The first United States anti-Communist action was, in 1947, to begin providing economic aid to countries pressured by outside powers. When Britain announced that it would withdraw aid to Greece and Turkey, the responsibility was passed on to the United States. America was afraid of spreading of communism because of that President Harry S. Truman asked military and economic aid for Greece and Turkey and established a doctrine named as the Truman Doctrine that would guide U.S. diplomacy for the next forty years.
A counselor in the United States Embassy in Moscow, George Kennan, introduced the policy of containment which said that America needed to stop the spread of communism and that it would eventually die out so long as it did not broaden. Not only were the American people scared of the spread of communism, but the United States government believed that communist nations would spread like falling dominoes if even one country in a region began enacting socialist policies. The United States implemented this new policy with the passage of the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan of June5, 1947. In the Truman Doctrine, then President Truman pledged $400 million in aid to Turkey and Greece in an effort to avert communist takeovers. This served as an open ended offer to nations “to choose between freedom and democracy or terror and oppression” (Stranges, 194).
With the start of the Second World War, tensions were put aside to combat the Nazi threat in the Second World War. After the end of the Second World War, the Potsdam Conference was held by Great Britain, Soviet Union, and the United States in July 1945 to discuss the future of Germany and the rest of Europe. The outcome became the issue of who would control Europe for the next two years. By 1947, Europe was separated into half: Democratic Western Europe and Communist Eastern Europe. During the same year in March, President Truman announces the Truman Doctrine that will aid nations to defend themselves against Communism, by granting “four hundred million dollars.” The following year in April 1948, the Marshall Plan is passed, providing financial aid to Western Europe to prevent Communism.
In 1947 there was a civil war in Greece and Turkey. Great Britain was supplying economic and military aid to them until the war became too costly. Due to the fear of the Soviets from taking over the Untied States sent aid to the Greeks and Turks crushing the rebel movements. The Truman Doctrine inspired the Marshall Plan in June of 1947. It was a European recovery program aimed to "reduce hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos and to restore the confidence of the European people in the economic future of their own countries and as Europe as a whole."
1- Truman Doctrine: The Truman Doctrine was an international relations policy set forth by the U.S. President Harry Truman to help some countries. It was that the U.S. would support Greece and Turkey with economic and military aid to prevent them from joining the Soviet Union. On March 12, 1947, President Harry S. Truman presented this address before a joint session of Congress. His message was well known as the Truman Doctrine. It was that he asked the Congress for $400 million in military and economic assistance for Turkey and Greece.
However, he soon developed his own. In July he participated in Potsdam Conference and in August he authorized dropping of the two atomic bombs on the Japanese towns Hiroshima and Nagasaki. On 12th March 1947 Truman announced to the Congress what is eventually known as Truman doctrine. In this speech Truman asked Congress for a financial aid for European countries in the sum of about 40 billion dollars in order to support for "free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures". Truman showed a great interest in civil rights.
The article continues and states, that: From March 1973 until the fall of Saigon on April 30, 1975, ARVN forces tried desperately to save South Vietnam from political and military collapse. The end finally came, however, as DRV tanks rolled south along National Highway One. On the morning of April 30, Communist forces captured the presidential palace in Saigon, ending the Second Indochina War. (Brigham, par. 21) That was an official end of Vietnam War, long-term conflict, which drafted approximately 9 millions of soldiers.
Almost 30 years of warfare had been pointless, now the communists controlled Vietnam. The US had lost its first war ever, and was in tatters. One million Vietnamese people died, as well as nearly 60,000 Americans. In conclusion, it is clear why America got involved in the Vietnam War. They were scared senseless of the domino theory coming true, and of communism spreading throughout the world.