Therefore, actions are only moral if the action could be described as a universal law, known as a categorical imperative. A maxim according to Kant is to act in a way that we would will the action to be a universal law, as opposed to the hypothetical imperative which demands that we act to achieve a certain ends. (Kant in Signer 1994). Therefore, we to act morally good, we sho... ... middle of paper ... ...nature and is a game we play, yet it has its own rules that we must abide by if we are to exist in a society. So why do what's morally right?
(ii) God exists. The conclusion is that since God exists (due to the theistic nature of Divine Command Theory), then morality is determined by his word. By applying Divine Command Theory to the statement “If God does not exist, then everything is permitted,” we can establish that DCT is a theory that could follow the statement. As stated above, Divine Command Theory puts morality in the word of God. In the simplest sense, God’s commands make things right or wrong.
Therefore, Kant believes that duty is derived from the CI and that the CI is the fundamental method of morality. • The humanity formula is based on the idea of respect. Kant believes that with the other formulas the CI is perceived as intuition rather than the Universal Law formula. The humanity formula indicates that using others, as a means to our ends does not apply, this would be absurd in pursuing our goals. The humanity in us should be treated as an end in itself.
An act will be deemed good depending on the motive or intention behind the act. He suggests that an action can be determined to be moral by using reason to question the intention or motive behind an act. He states that the universal law, “act only on the maxim through which you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law” (Kant, 2005: 161). Furthermore, Kant argues that morality has a sense of duty attached to
This experience Kant says comes from questions raised by our inner moral life, what we usually call a conscience. Moral behaviour, Kant is adamant, is rational behaviour and that we have a good reason to be moral and that this is a fundamental principle of morality; that if you have a reason to do something then you have a reason to do it. A moral reason is al... ... middle of paper ... ...jective moral laws suggest that there is a divine-law giver who wrote these laws. He later says that since commands and laws do not write themselves, they must be either brute facts requiring no explanation or put there by God. This argument is also supported by Don Trethowan who said objective laws are ‘far from being self explanatory’.
Hypothetical imperatives are actions that look for the best means to a goal, however, the goal might not necessarily be an end in itself. On the other hand, the categorical imperative is an objectively necessary means to an end in itself, and the action to obtain the end, must have moral worth. If we as rational agents, have any morality at all Kant says, it takes the form of rational, categorical imperatives (commands of reason) and is found a priori excluding all interests and desires. These commands of reason are proven by the Universal Law Formula, which when applied, is a method for determining the morality of actions. How is this formula applied though?
According to Sartre, moral values come after human experiences, which is “existence precedes essence” (Peterson 622). The notion of existence preceding essence implicates that in a world without god, the responsibility falls into our hands. That is, the responsibility to be the judges of all our moral values. Consequently, according to Sartre, the existentialist “thi... ... middle of paper ... ... Does philosophy answer the question regarding morality and ethics objectively?