There are also more explosive volcanic eruptions in which the gas pressure builds until it is extremely high and the viscuous lava can no longer stand i... ... middle of paper ... ...because these volcanoes are located in different areas of the world or because El Nino occured during the year of the eruption of El Chichon. All of these evidences are still being compiled and scrutinized in order to verify the true relation between volcanic eruptions and climate change. Works Cited: Angell, James. "Stratospheric Warming Following Volcanic Eruptions." http://capita.wustl.edu "The Effects of Volcanic Eruptions on Earth's Climate."
Volcanoes Volcanoes are natural phenomena which are on the Earth’s surface through which molten rock and gases escape from below the surface (Tarbuck, 139). These volcanoes are very interesting to observe and to study because of their amazing occurrences and majestic lava eruptions. Volcanoes have been studied ever since the beginning of mankind and the word “volcano” is thought to be derived from Vulcano, a volcanic island in the Aeolian Islands of Italy whose name in turn originates from Vulcan, the name of a god of fire in Roman mythology. Consisting of several types, volcanoes can extrude several forms of magma and can also release multiple gases. These extruded materials can affect the Earth’s structure and atmosphere.
Fracking is a large industrial operation that boost the “productivity of a oil or gas well” (5). It is a process by which, under very high pressure, a mixture of water, chemicals, and sand, are pumped into shale formations that causes fractures in the rocks to open wider or create new fractures that would allow otherwise trapped oil and gas to flow into the wells (6). There are concerns that fracking could be the causation of earthquakes. In areas where fracking operations occur and earthquakes are not the norm, there has been instances of seismic activity. For example, before 2011, the last seismic activity experienced by small town in Ohio named Youngstown was in 1776, but in a span of months during 2011, more than 100 instances of seismic activity ranging from 2.7 to 3.9 on the Ric... ... middle of paper ... ..., 9 Sept. 2013.
Mono Basin Volcanism The last basin in the Basin and Range before the Sierra Nevada Mountain range is the Mono Basin. The Mono Basin consists of landforms such as the Mono-Inyo Craters, Black Point, Negit Island, Paoha Island, Mono Lake, Devils Punch Bowl, Panum Crater, and some others (Hamburger et al; 2004). All of these landforms were created by volcanism. Actually, the Mono Basin is in one of the most volcanically active places in the world (Forest Service; 2004). Paoha Island, Negit Island, and Panum Crater are the most recent volcanoes to erupt, which are the furthest north in the basin.
Volcanoes obtain their energies from such movement and pressure. Volcanoes form at the boundaries of these plate where two types of movement occurs, two plates will collide with each other or the plates will move apart from each other. Some of these plates layers are cooled and are made up of rigid rocks. The affects on the landscape is lava that releases onto the Earth's surface. When that lava comes to the Earths surface, it is red hot and sometimes the temperature is more than 2012 degrees Fahrenheit.
Accomplishing this daunting task will ensure that in the future when an eruption occurs, the population at risk will be prepared and lives can be saved. Numerous methods are available for monitoring volcanic activity, and scientists typically synthesize data and observations from all methods available in order to obtain the most comprehensive look at the area being observed. One frequently used technique is monitoring seismic activity that may indicate flow of magma and gas beneath the surface. As magma at extreme temperatures of sometimes over one thousand Degrees Celsius rises through cracks in the Earth's crust, the intense temperature and pressure causes the surrounding rock to crack, as illustrated in the diagram above. This brittle fracture of the surrounding rock often causes earthquakes or vibrations called tremors.
Volcanoes have played a key role in forming the face of the earth as we know it today. Some of the most well known landmarks and locations in the world are volcanoes. From the Hawaiian Islands to Mount Vesuvius, the Earth is populated with hundreds of active and dormant volcanoes. Among these volcanoes there are multiple different types. Stratovolcanoes, the most dangerous type of volcanoes, are built by multiple eruptions over many years.
After significant time, the hard lava forms a volcanic mountain. Volcanoes can form in many different sizes and shapes. They can look like a cone, have steep looking flanks, or look as if they were long cracks in the earth’s crust. (Plummer et al., 2000). If the mountain is very tall, then there is a greater chance that it was formed from past eruptions.