The Instability of Female Quixote In “The Female Quixote,” the whimsical nature of fiction is not just a barrier to social acceptance, but an absurdity. Following popular notions of the time, fiction is presented as a diversion and an indulgence that cannot be reconciled with reality and threatens the reader’s perception of actual experience. The theme is common, as is evident through the basis of this novel, Cervantes’s “Don Quixote,” and other works such as “Northanger Abbey” by Jane Austen. The story is a series of examples of what not to do, acting as both a cautionary tale and conduct guide. But there is a fundamental instability in the work resulting from the opposition of the moral and the means in which it is presented.
In conclusion, there is more evidence suggesting that the Governess was suffering from hysteria than there is to prove that it is a ghost story. Henry James has created this novel in defence of his own sister, who was prone to violent outbursts of hysteria. He wanted to show the sceptical Victorian nation how real the images could seem to the person seeing them, and therefore included pathetic fallacy and other various methods to demonstrate this and make the tale more believable. No matter how big the contrast is between two interpretations of ‘The Turn of the Screw’ the one thing all readers can agree on is this: Henry James has succeeded in manipulating the reader into believing anything he wants them to believe, which is indeed an great achievement.
Her characters, Mrs. Todd and Mrs. Tolland, are incredible images of witchiness in the midst of Protestant propriety, and in this short story ... ... middle of paper ... ... her story describes a supernatural place, cannot be defined as "Magic Realist." She, along with her characters, is too much grounded in "this world." These three women authors approach magic situations in a realistic setting in entirely different manner, and this manner reflects the difficulties that these women felt with their own communities. Jewett and Chopin seem much more ready to accept difference, whereas Cather struggles with her "art." Writers of Magic Realism are experimenting with new elements, rejecting the "laws" of realistic fiction because of the repressive nature of those rules and rule-givers.
Chapter 1 is full of questions and strange issues, not only does this make the reader wants to read on to find out the answers but builds up the tension. To conclude, the sense of ambiguity makes the story what it is: either a thrilling ghost story or a tale of the mad young woman. Henry James has written it so well that we will never know which is the real interpretation of the story and whether the evidence I have found is relevant or if there is some other reason in to the true meaning of the novella. The story will always be a mystery.
The interior voice of the manuscript, so to speak, embodied in the figure of the governess, makes problematically decide whether the apparitions are real or mere delusions. This is because the governess' point of view does not provide conclusive evidence about her experience; hence, the conflict remains a mystery and open to the interpretation of the reader. Throughout the story two first-person narrators can be distinguished: an unknown narrato... ... middle of paper ... ...critics, such as Edmund Wilson and Charles Thomas Samuels, have attributed to the term ambiguity. Ward highlights the fact that “ambiguity is an essentially honorific term, implying complexity, richness of meaning and levels of significance” (39). According to Ward, “they (Wilson and Samuels) believe that when a work is ambiguous either the author is unsure of what he wants to say or he is saying to contradictory things at the same time” (Ibid).
The second camp considers subtleties in the text and structure of the story and comes to the conclusion that the governess is not a reliable narrator. Instead, she hallucinates the ghosts. As critics bat these two different readings back and forth some have come to the conclusion that Henry James wrote with the intention that the story could have two simultaneous readings. According to Cook and Corrigan, “The governess-narrator uses language to confirm the reality of what she thinks she sees, and thus she makes her suspicions “real” not only to herself but to the rest of her audience” (56). The text is what the reader (and the other characters in the novel) rely on in order to make sense of the tale.
Finally, it is clear that she attempts to escape this notion by imagining an idyllic yet impossible life that she envisions in remote circumstances. It is clear that Plath's creation is a Novel of Sensibility as her writing not only possesses all of the qualities associated with this genre, it also effectively takes the reader into the story with the protagonist. One who suffers from paranoia often makes conclusions about situations without any real knowledge or understanding. Esther is a person who believes that she will be discovered and mistreated if any knowledge that she deems potentially harmful is realized about her. On one visit to her psychiatrist, she shows him the pieces of a letter that she wrote to a friend.
Happy Endings is an oddly structured, metafictional story; a series of possible scenarios all leading the characters to the same ending. Atwood uses humour and practical wisdom to critique both romantic fiction and contemporary society, and to make the point that it is not the end that is important, it is the journey that truly matters in both life and writing. Metafiction is fiction that deals, often playfully and self-referentially, with the writing of fiction or its conventions (website 1). Margaret Atwood is clearly mocking the conventions of romantic fiction throughout the entire story, beginning with the third line "if you want a happy ending, try A." Each scenario includes the idea that "you'll still end up with A" despite the rest of the story, and this indicates that romantic fiction lacks creativity and gives us the ending we want and expect; a happy one.
In this way, Emily Bronte controls her audience in the same way Heathcliff control’s his... ... middle of paper ... ...ss in the end. Bronte makes this fictional setting seem plausible because she employed both of these themes in the way that she wrote her novel. By purposefully leaving major questions unanswered in the novel, Bronte deceives many readers into thinking that they have free reign in interpreting these perceived plot wholes. In fact, these are not plot wholes at all; but instead, examples of literary genius employed by Emily Bronte that are only appreciated by careful readers. She used unreliable narrators to recant stories that occurred at the Wuthering Heights and the Grange because the details did not need to be overly in depth in order for the major themes to be understood by the attentive audience.
Whether or not this story occurred is unimportant, as O’Brien said, “happeningness is irrelevant.” The important factor is that a lesson is displayed. O’Connor, through her fiction, exposes significant flaws in humanity, using the waiting room as a mirror for who we are. Mrs. Turpin is a mimesis of mankind; just as all good literature should do, our downfalls are displayed in order to teach and improve. As Flannery O’Connor said, “In Good Fiction, certain of the details will tend to accumulate meaning from the action of the story itself, and when this happens they become symbolic in the way they work.” (487) Though her story is more happeningness than true, it was strategically written in order to reveal God’s grace to all believers in the end.