Emperor Justinian is identified as one of the greatest Caesars to ever rule in Europe during his reign from 527-565, during this he succeeded in reviving Roman Authority throughout his growing Byzantium Empire . As Emperor of the Byzantium Empire in the sixth and seventh century he conquered many parts of Europe restoring the control of the Roman Authority once again if only for a while . This essay will point out the extent in which Justinian succeeded Roman Authority. Although many depictions that can be argued, closer examination can be shown that through huge military successes, Architectural activities that changed the Empires value and enhanced Constantinople as the centre of the Christian World, and the legal work of the ‘Code of Justinian’ helped Justinian to revive Roman Authority. In the seventh century saw the collapse of the Byzantium Empire, which was defeated and taken over by the Ottoman-Turk Empire from the East of Constantinople. This Essay will access the reasons for decline of such a powerful empire, hit with the ‘Justinian Plague’ and eventually deteriorating after Justinian death . This saw the end to any last element of any Roman Authority in Europe.
In conclusion, we see that Justinian had many great achievements like his conquering of many countries and his code of laws. His laws were foundations for other countries laws and he made a huge impact on the Byzantine Empire and the countries surrounding it. The byzantine empire was able to last for so long was because of its geography of the empire and because the byzantine empire controlled most of the medditerean sea. The Byzantines also influenced later civilizations through architect and
...land surrounding the Mediterranean Sea, as Justinian’s armed forces subjugated part of the previous Western Roman Empire. Many prodigious monuments of the empire would be constructed under Justinian, including the domed Church of Holy Wisdom. Justinian also transformed and organized Roman law, establishing a Byzantine legal code that would withstand for centuries and help silhouette the modern concept of the state. At the time of Justinian’s death, the Byzantine Empire ruled supreme as the largest and most powerful state in Europe. Amount overdue experienced through war had left the empire in dire financial straits, however, and his successors were forced to heavily tax Byzantine citizens in order to keep the empire afloat. Furthermore, the majestic army was stretched too thin, and would skirmish in vain to maintain the territory conquered during Justinian’s rule.
The initial cultural and political decline of the Byzantine Empire that preceded the rule of emperor Michael III can be attributed to the second iconoclast crisis; the religious dispute between those in favor of and against religious images and symbols. The Byzantine Empire, “ a Graeco-Christian Empire, also occupied a unique cultural position, set midway between the East and the West” at the divide of the crisis (Ostrogorski 217). However, this fall in political standing was followed by reversal and expansion into the East under the rule of Theodora, Michael’s mother. Michael III lacked the ambition to carry out the topographical expansion of the Byzantine Empire, as he was “capricious and fickle to the point of complete unreliability” (Ostrogorski 223). Regardless, his reign was considered profitable due to the genius of his uncle Bardas and the politician Photius. However by the end of Michaels reign, the tension from the iconoclast division between the Roman Chur...
During the years of St. Augustine, the Roman Empire fell in the west. It was being replaced by regional barbarian kingdoms, and was entering what some historians call the dark ages. It was a traditional, authoritative empire, with vast free-trade and a centralized government. It transformed into a Europe of economic localism, and filled with a minority of educated people. It was now a Christian Europe. A very important person during this new Europe was the Frankish king Charlemagne. His rule was known throughout the world, and Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne the "Emperor of the Romans." On top of this title, he still held all of his other titles. Charlemagne made tons of contributions during this time in Europe. He had educational and clerical reforms, and preached on discipline, learning, and piety.
Beginning with Constantius, his rule is the foundation to the success of Christianity. By making various changes to the structure of rule and deliberate attacks on those who opposed him, the rise of Christianity as the state religion of Rome came into light. One of Constantius' very prominent strategies involved that of eliminating those who showed signs of threatening his authority. Amongst those in elimination, Julian's father, and eventually Julian's brother [who he technically did not have a close relationship with] [pp 16]. Not only did Constantious strike fear in the hearts of his people, but he also implemented bishops and those who held an office like such, into the core of the government. Constantius granted them power and luxuries that would further promote the Christian faith so the image o...
Russia, under Peter the Great, saw a vast change in religious policy in the beginning of the eighteenth century. It was marked by radical reforms in which Peter eliminated the traditional office of church leadership, which was held by the Patriarch of Moscow, and established a church council called the Holy Synod. This Holy Synod was supposed to determine the best route for the Russian Orthodox Church but instead remained obedient to the will of Peter the Great. He has a policy of semi-religious tolerance but his main focus was on the improvement of the Russian Orthodox Church. This was in great part due to the enlightenment idea of the individual and human reasoning towards progressivism. In the following quote from his 1702 Decree on the Invitation to Foreigners, we can see where he places the emphasis on religious tolerance,
The Orthodox Church launched almost two thousand years ago. Orthodoxy has three hundred million people in its fellowship, placing it as the seconded largest religious group in the world. Thomas Hopko says that, “The Orthodoxy Church understands itself to be the one, holy, catholic, and apostolic Church, the true Church of Christ on earth…and claims [that] there is an absolute identity and continuity of this Church from the time of the apostles to the present day.” (Clendenin 29) Christianity itself did not materialize in Russia until the middle of the tenth century. It is closely tied with Constantinople because of its tradition with the sacred pictures, ceremonial and external rights, the rigid adherence to ancient forms, and the strong tincture of Orientalism (Heard 15). The Grand Prince Vladimir of Novgorod (later titled Tsar) had a large impact on the Russian culture. He forced the faith of Orthodox Christianity on his people. On the positive side, he basically brought into Russia as much ci...
As in many parts of the ancient world, the people living in the Rus lands worshiped Pagan gods for thousands of years. Christianity became an influence on the Rus via the Byzantine Empire and the Kievan Rus state around 800 CE. The Byzantine Empire was the largest empire in the world in the 800s and 900s and the official religion of the Byzantines was Orthodox Christianity. The Byzantines' global influence was extraordinary but Kiev's (the Rus capital) close proximity to the Byzantine capital Constantinople added even more influence and pressure to the Rus than most places. Olga, who was ruling the Kievan Rus state as regent, officially converted to Christianity in 945 CE. Olga's gender and status as regent did not allow for Christianity to spread in the Rus state but for the first time churches and missionaries from Constantinople were allowed to stay in Kiev. (Notes from Kovalev class, 9/24/13) Olga's grandson Vladimir became the Grand Prince of the Rus from 980 to 1015. Vladimir felt there was a need to unite all of the diverse Rus tribes under one cultural and religious orientation. Vladimir invited representatives from several religions such as Judaism, Islam, Catholicism, and Orthodox Christianity to try and convert him and the Rus to their respective religions. The obvious choice for Vladimir was Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire. Constantine was a close neighbor to Kiev. Converting to Orthodox Christianity opened up trade and political options for the Rus that they never had before. The Rus and the Byzantines became trading partners and uneasy allies which helped the Rus kingdom stabilize and grow in the years to come. (Zenkovsky, 66)
...y accomplished by moving their borders from a few miles away from Kiev all the way down to the Black Sea in the late 900s. The biggest accomplishment before the year 1000 was in 988 when Vladmir I, ruler of Russia, converted him and his people to Orthodox Christianity. This choice helped set Russia apart from the surrounding tribes of the east and west, while helping the relationship between Russia and Byzantium, and which led the Russian Empire in the right direction for the new millennium.