Darwin 's Theory Of Evolution

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The definition of the term ‘evolution’ summarized into one sentence refers to the changes in genetic traits or mutation between several generations. This change in genetic traits usually occurs during the breeding process, where the genes are copied passed on to the offspring. As a result the mutation, the genetic variation would occur between individuals. The new character/s could transfer within the specie due to the horizontal transfer of gene and migration. As the genetic variation/s become common between the specie through ‘natural selection’ or random genetic drift effect, evolution occurred to this specie. The essence of evolution is at last the change in gene frequencies of the population over long period of time (McClean, 1997). 1.2 Darwin’s Theory of Evolution The term evolution has been frequently linked to Darwin, however, the development of this theory also involves the influence of other forerunner such as Lamarck, where he and Darwin both support the idea of ‘natural selection’ (Than, 2015). Darwin’s Theory of Evolution consists the following four arguments: 1. The Premise – all organisms has descended from a common ancestor 2. Natural Selection – to preserve and accumulate the minor beneficial genetic mutations 3. Graduate Change – natural selection acts only by taking advantage of slight successive variations; she can never take a great and sudden leap, but must advance by short and sure, through slow steps (Darwin, 1859). 4. The Theory in Crisis – the crisis that act upon the organisms will enhance the genetic variation of organisms It can be seen that in Darwin’s theory of evolution the four sub-theory are connected and each is indispensable to this theory. The theory of premise is the starting point o... ... middle of paper ... ...and the presence of craft stone tools have been found in locations in association with Homo erectus fossils but not in locations in association with Australopithecus fossils. The present of craft of stone tools not only suggests the increase in intelligence of the hominid specie where the population are able to create tools for different needs, but also suggest the change in body structure and diet as the increasing body weight, height and brain size require large amount of energy and lead to the creation of hand axes for hunting and cutting use (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, 2015). Despite the difference in body structure between Australopithecus and Homo erectus, the larger cranial cavity of Homo erectus is the main reason for stone tools found in location associated with the specie, because the improved intelligence as a result of larger brain.

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