DNA and DNA Profiling Made Simple

explanatory Essay
3447 words
3447 words

1.1. Amplification If the quantity of the DNA isolated is not enough, the specialist increases it to optimal levels via an amplification technique that uses the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) process. In addition, PCR targets specific locations on the DNA strand known as the loci (singular: locus) to produce similar copies. 1.2. Electrophoresis In this process, the specialist separates the materials based on their size and composition of the DNA strands on a particular gel in the presence of electricity. The figure below displays the electrophoresis results (courtesy of How Stuff Works). 1.3. Analysis The last stage involves analyzing the DNA screening results obtained based on a particular program in the National DNA Database. Short Tandem Repeats (STR) analysis dominates the process for the purpose of criminal investigations. This is because the STRs do not characterize the physical appearance of an individual. The field of forensics insists on the use of STRs because its locus is made up of two alleles. 2. Introduction The evolution of technology brings with it unlimited significances to the modern society. Every day new technology emerges in the world to solve a particular problem. The rate at which technology influences lives seems immeasurable. In the process, the advancement in technology spreads across all professional fields linking one area of specialization to another. Initially, there existed no direct links between applied sciences such as biology and social sciences such as political science. It is because the two areas deal with distinct and diverse ideologies. Nowadays, it seems that the two cannot perform independently without each other. In one way or another, they intertwine on similar application a... ... middle of paper ..., Washington, D.C. Goulka, JE 2010, Toward a comparison of DNA profiling and databases in the United States and England, RAND, Santa Monica, CA. Grubb, A & Pearl, D 1990, Blood testing, AIDS, and DNA profiling: law and policy, Family Law Press, Bristol. Harding, L 2007, DNA databases, Greenhaven Press, Detroit. Hindmarsh, RA & Prainsack, B 2010, Genetic suspects: global governance of forensic DNA profiling and databasing, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, MA. Lincoln, PJ & Thomson, J 1998, Forensic DNA profiling protocols, Humana Press, Totowa, NJ. Marzilli, A 2005, DNA evidence, Chelsea House Publishers, Philadelphia, PA. Spencer, C 2004, Genetic testimony: a guide to forensic DNA profiling, Pearson/Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. Zeisel, H & Kaye, D 1997, Prove it with figures empirical methods in law and litigation, Springer, New York, NY.

In this essay, the author

  • Explains the amplification technique that uses the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) process. the electrophoresis process separates materials based on their size and composition.
  • Explains that the last stage involves analyzing the dna screening results obtained based on a particular program in the national dna database. short tandem repeats (strs) analysis dominates the process for criminal investigations.
  • Explains that the evolution of technology brings with it unlimited significances to the modern society. it spreads across all professional fields linking one area of specialization to another.
  • Explains that the criminal justice system employs dna evidence in the conviction process. the professional outline of the system lacks the details concerning dna.
  • Explains that dna, the abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, refers to the major building component of life.
  • Explains that dna material carries genetic data and information of a particular person. it determines and controls all the activities and changes in their body.
  • Explains that a person's nucleic dna is unique and represents the two halves of parental dna; twins who are identical in nature bear approximately the same dna composition.
  • Explains that mitochondrial dna passes from the maternal side of the parents to the siblings (offsprings).
  • Explains that forensic scientists analyze only a given set of nucleic dna in criminal investigations.
  • Explains that the collection process proceeds after the identification of the material evidence with dna. contamination happens when the dna material/evidence belonging to a person blends with another’s.
  • Explains the application of dna in criminal investigations. the isolation of the material from the crime scene helps the criminal justice system determine the persons present at the time it happened.
  • Explains that the combined dna index system (codis) is funded by the federal bureau of investigations (fbi). the database is important for screening potential suspects by harmonizing their dna profiles.
  • Explains how forensic investigators isolate biological samples from suspected material, then obtain the dna material and create the suspect's profile from it.
  • Explains that criminal and investigative lawyers depend on dna evidence to incriminate or exonerate suspects. however, errors and contaminations that occur during the process of collecting, storing, and analyzing the dna material render it irrelevant in court trials.
  • Explains that the name of the allele represents the number of repeats it undergoes.
  • Explains the two main categories of dna profiling, which include nuclear and mitochondrial dna profiles.
  • Explains that obtaining y-strs follows the process of profiling described earlier in the text.
  • Explains that the commercially available y-str kits examine a single locus at an instance, which exists as an duplicate on y-chromosomes. the tests prove futile in forensic analysis of male suspects
  • Explains that the nuclear analysis of y-strs allows the specialist to derive the profile of males only.
  • Explains that dna specialist develops x-str profiles from str loci present on the female determinant x-chromosome. mitochondria is a sub-cellular component present in all types of cells.
  • Explains that all offspring from a given family have the same mitochondrial dna inherited from their mother. the dna is dominant throughout the cell, hence its analysis process is sensitive.
  • Explains that forensic specialists may use mtdna to trace the ethnic origin of an individual, but it is prone to various misgivings.
  • Explains that the suspect's dna may mix with that of the victim resulting in partial or full contamination. contamination in the context of dna profiling means the presence of foreign dna materials.
  • Explains the guiding principles of evaluating dna evidence. if the dna profile derived from the suspect differs from that obtained at the crime scene, it raises the question whose answer leads to the offense.
  • Explains that the reporting of dna evidence is vital because it evaluates the possibility of a match between any two dna profiles.
  • Explains that the dna report submitted to the law enforcers by the scientist contains several procedural sections to be filled or answered.
  • Explains that the report presents a table containing all the profiles generated and their matches with an interpretative statement.
  • Explains that dr. alec jeffrey, an english scientist, realized that the dna strand had many similar repeated sequences, but the number and patterns of the repeats contrasted between people with an exemption of identical twins.
  • Explains that technology has brought various advancements to this process such as the polymerase chain reaction (pcr), which utilizes very small quantity of dna. major changes in sensitivity have also taken place to ensure the analysis process is accurate.
  • Explains that the forensic specialist isolates and separates dna from the assorted evidence materials. several extraction processes exist, but they pursue three major techniques: disruption of cell membranes, destruction of proteinaceous material, and isolation of dna.
  • Explains that the specialist determines the quantity of dna isolated to ensure that it is enough for the next steps. quantification is important to achieve precise and correct results.
  • Explains that the forensic scientist's statement discourages the inclusion of a scientific statement in the report. the statement relies on the information made available to the scientists.
  • Explains the use of inherited alleles in paternity testing to determine the link between parental relationships.
  • Explains that the paternity tests work with two contending hypotheses, and that if a child lacks alleles from the suspected father, then the child belongs to another man.
  • Explains how the fss manages the national dna database (ndd). the database plays an important role in solving past, present, and future crimes.
  • Describes the works cited by aitken, taroni, aronson, and becker.
  • Opines that dna profiling: principles, pitfalls, and potential: a handbook of dna-based evidence for the legal and forensic professions.
  • Compares dna profiling and databases in the united states and england.
  • Cites hindmarsh, prainsack, thomson, lincoln, marzilli, and spencer for forensic dna profiling.
Get Access