If the quantity of the DNA isolated is not enough, the specialist increases it to optimal levels via an amplification technique that uses the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) process. In addition, PCR targets specific locations on the DNA strand known as the loci (singular: locus) to produce similar copies.
In this process, the specialist separates the materials based on their size and composition of the DNA strands on a particular gel in the presence of electricity. The figure below displays the electrophoresis results (courtesy of How Stuff Works).
The last stage involves analyzing the DNA screening results obtained based on a particular program in the National DNA Database. Short Tandem Repeats (STR) analysis dominates the process for the purpose of criminal investigations. This is because the STRs do not characterize the physical appearance of an individual. The field of forensics insists on the use of STRs because its locus is made up of two alleles.
The evolution of technology brings with it unlimited significances to the modern society. Every day new technology emerges in the world to solve a particular problem. The rate at which technology influences lives seems immeasurable. In the process, the advancement in technology spreads across all professional fields linking one area of specialization to another. Initially, there existed no direct links between applied sciences such as biology and social sciences such as political science. It is because the two areas deal with distinct and diverse ideologies. Nowadays, it seems that the two cannot perform independently without each other. In one way or another, they intertwine on similar application a...
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...ss, Washington, D.C.
Goulka, JE 2010, Toward a comparison of DNA profiling and databases in the United States and England, RAND, Santa Monica, CA.
Grubb, A & Pearl, D 1990, Blood testing, AIDS, and DNA profiling: law and policy, Family Law Press, Bristol.
Harding, L 2007, DNA databases, Greenhaven Press, Detroit.
Hindmarsh, RA & Prainsack, B 2010, Genetic suspects: global governance of forensic DNA profiling and databasing, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, MA.
Lincoln, PJ & Thomson, J 1998, Forensic DNA profiling protocols, Humana Press, Totowa, NJ.
Marzilli, A 2005, DNA evidence, Chelsea House Publishers, Philadelphia, PA.
Spencer, C 2004, Genetic testimony: a guide to forensic DNA profiling, Pearson/Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.
Zeisel, H & Kaye, D 1997, Prove it with figures empirical methods in law and litigation, Springer, New York, NY.
In this essay, the author
Explains the amplification technique that uses the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) process. the electrophoresis process separates materials based on their size and composition.
Explains that the last stage involves analyzing the dna screening results obtained based on a particular program in the national dna database. short tandem repeats (strs) analysis dominates the process for criminal investigations.
Explains that the evolution of technology brings with it unlimited significances to the modern society. it spreads across all professional fields linking one area of specialization to another.
Explains that the criminal justice system employs dna evidence in the conviction process. the professional outline of the system lacks the details concerning dna.
Explains that dna, the abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, refers to the major building component of life.
Explains that dna material carries genetic data and information of a particular person. it determines and controls all the activities and changes in their body.
Explains that a person's nucleic dna is unique and represents the two halves of parental dna; twins who are identical in nature bear approximately the same dna composition.
Explains that mitochondrial dna passes from the maternal side of the parents to the siblings (offsprings).
Explains that forensic scientists analyze only a given set of nucleic dna in criminal investigations.
Explains that the collection process proceeds after the identification of the material evidence with dna. contamination happens when the dna material/evidence belonging to a person blends with another’s.
Explains the application of dna in criminal investigations. the isolation of the material from the crime scene helps the criminal justice system determine the persons present at the time it happened.
Explains that the combined dna index system (codis) is funded by the federal bureau of investigations (fbi). the database is important for screening potential suspects by harmonizing their dna profiles.
Explains how forensic investigators isolate biological samples from suspected material, then obtain the dna material and create the suspect's profile from it.
Explains that criminal and investigative lawyers depend on dna evidence to incriminate or exonerate suspects. however, errors and contaminations that occur during the process of collecting, storing, and analyzing the dna material render it irrelevant in court trials.
Explains that the name of the allele represents the number of repeats it undergoes.
Explains the two main categories of dna profiling, which include nuclear and mitochondrial dna profiles.
Explains that obtaining y-strs follows the process of profiling described earlier in the text.
Explains that the commercially available y-str kits examine a single locus at an instance, which exists as an duplicate on y-chromosomes. the tests prove futile in forensic analysis of male suspects
Explains that the nuclear analysis of y-strs allows the specialist to derive the profile of males only.
Explains that dna specialist develops x-str profiles from str loci present on the female determinant x-chromosome. mitochondria is a sub-cellular component present in all types of cells.
Explains that all offspring from a given family have the same mitochondrial dna inherited from their mother. the dna is dominant throughout the cell, hence its analysis process is sensitive.
Explains that forensic specialists may use mtdna to trace the ethnic origin of an individual, but it is prone to various misgivings.
Explains that the suspect's dna may mix with that of the victim resulting in partial or full contamination. contamination in the context of dna profiling means the presence of foreign dna materials.
Explains the guiding principles of evaluating dna evidence. if the dna profile derived from the suspect differs from that obtained at the crime scene, it raises the question whose answer leads to the offense.
Explains that the reporting of dna evidence is vital because it evaluates the possibility of a match between any two dna profiles.
Explains that the dna report submitted to the law enforcers by the scientist contains several procedural sections to be filled or answered.
Explains that the report presents a table containing all the profiles generated and their matches with an interpretative statement.
Explains that dr. alec jeffrey, an english scientist, realized that the dna strand had many similar repeated sequences, but the number and patterns of the repeats contrasted between people with an exemption of identical twins.
Explains that technology has brought various advancements to this process such as the polymerase chain reaction (pcr), which utilizes very small quantity of dna. major changes in sensitivity have also taken place to ensure the analysis process is accurate.
Explains that the forensic specialist isolates and separates dna from the assorted evidence materials. several extraction processes exist, but they pursue three major techniques: disruption of cell membranes, destruction of proteinaceous material, and isolation of dna.
Explains that the specialist determines the quantity of dna isolated to ensure that it is enough for the next steps. quantification is important to achieve precise and correct results.
Explains that the forensic scientist's statement discourages the inclusion of a scientific statement in the report. the statement relies on the information made available to the scientists.
Explains the use of inherited alleles in paternity testing to determine the link between parental relationships.
Explains that the paternity tests work with two contending hypotheses, and that if a child lacks alleles from the suspected father, then the child belongs to another man.
Explains how the fss manages the national dna database (ndd). the database plays an important role in solving past, present, and future crimes.
Describes the works cited by aitken, taroni, aronson, and becker.
Opines that dna profiling: principles, pitfalls, and potential: a handbook of dna-based evidence for the legal and forensic professions.
Compares dna profiling and databases in the united states and england.
Cites hindmarsh, prainsack, thomson, lincoln, marzilli, and spencer for forensic dna profiling.
DNA testing has overthrown the way police collect evidence in a number of criminal cases, especially rape and murder and consequently had a large impact on many past cases. However there are many disadvantages to DNA testing, such as a challenge of accuracy, the costs of DNA testing and the possible misuse of DNA. The prospect of a national DNA database in Australia has been heavily criticised with complaints of invasion of privacy and stigma against those with terminal diseases.
In this essay, the author
Explains that dna testing has overthrown the way police collect evidence in a number of criminal cases, especially rape and murder. however, there are many disadvantages to it, such as the challenge of accuracy, the costs of testing, and the possible misuse of dna.
Explains that dna is a strand of molecules found within the cell nucleus of all living things.
Explains that dna testing was first used in a criminal case in the united kingdom in 1987. however, many people disagree to the use of dna results.
Explains that the federal police are pushing for a national database to help solve crime and ask for legislation to be allowed to collect dna samples from people accused, or suspected of committing an offence.
Explains that the victorian government has allowed police to collect samples from more suspected criminals, not just those accused of murder, serious assault or rape.
Opines that privacy is another big issue surrounding the plans for a database. the new south wales privacy council chairman says that the prospect of genetic database is “cavalier disregard for people’s privacy.”
Explains that all states, apart from western australia, have the right to compose a dna database. this makes it possible for criminals to cross state borders without being found.
Describes a case of successful dna databasing in wee waa, new south wales.
Explains that dna testing involves moral and ethical dilemmas, such as who it belongs to, the accuracy of the results, costs, and the possibility of misuse, but it is a successful tool in solving cases.
DNA is a double helix molecule that contains information that is used to make up a person’s body. DNA controls every aspect of a person’s body from their eye and hair color, height, and other features. DNA’s specific and unique characteristic can be crucial when solving a crime. DNA can be used to convict a suspect or exonerate an innocent person. When DNA is found it is even more important that is handle properly to ensure proper identification and accuracy of testing. The evolution of DNA technology is vital to the process of solving crimes, however the process by which DNA is found and handle can jeopardize its powerfulness.
In this essay, the author
Explains that dna controls every aspect of a person's body from their eye and hair color, height, and other features. the evolution of dna technology is vital to solving crimes, but the process by which it is found and handled can jeopardize its power.
Explains the importance of dna in solving a crime. the structure of the dna molecule was discovered by watson and crick in 1953.
Explains that a person's dna is the same no matter the source or location from on or in the body, making it an even more vital piece of evidence.
Explains that dna testing has evolved since its start with abo analysis. the discovery of "fingerprint" dna allowed investigators to have more solid evidence than just a blood type.
Explains that dna testing improved with the introduction of polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and the discovery of different repeating sequences called microsatellites.
Explains how dna technologies have led to convictions and exonerations of the innocent. professor jeffreys was asked to do dna profiling in a double rape and murder case.
Explains that dna is a sensitive molecule and temperature and the containment must correct in order to maintain its structure.
Opines that the criminal justice system must realize the full potential of dna evidence as a crime fighting tool.
Prime, Raymond J., and Jonathan Newman. "The Impact of DNA on Policing: Past, Present, and
In this essay, the author
Explains that law enforcement uses several methods to solve all types of crimes. if one method fails or isn't helpful, there are several others they can rely on.
Explains that forensic scientists can extract semen from a rape victim and use it to identify the criminal. the fbi began using dna testing in criminal investigations in 1998.
Explains that donna hooker was raped and killed in 1978. authorities had taken samples of semen from her lifeless body once they were able to locate it, and no arrests were made.
Describes how the collapse of the world trade centers thrusts debris and smoke through new york city. an estimated 2,750 people died in the terrorist attack.
Explains that the amber alert program is named after amber hagerman who was abducted and killed at the age of nine.
Describes how elizabeth smart was kidnapped from her family's home in salt lake city on june 5, 2002. her abductor, brian mitchell, took her into the woods near her home to meet up with his wife wanda barzee.
Explains that video cameras, or closed-circuit television, have facial recognition software and license plate readers to reduce lower-scale crimes.
Opines that the united states government has dramatically increased the ability of its intelligence to collect and investigate information on foreign subjects and us citizens since september 11, 2001.
Describes how the attacks on september 11, 2001 triggered major u.s. initiatives to combat terrorism.
Explains that several programs have been enacted to protect americans against threats since 9/11. many expanded the government’s powers of domestic spying to help find the terrorists living among americans.
States that the usa patriot act widened the government's surveillance powers, allowing them to conduct secret searches and records searches. the american civil liberties union claims that congress and the administration acted without any careful or systematic effort to determine whether weaknesses in our surveillance laws contributed to the attacks.
Explains that prism is an internet surveillance program that gives the government the power to conduct warrantless searches and collect information about users of google, facebook, and more.
Explains that snowden leaked details about the national security agency's phone surveillance program, which allegedly collects information from the phone calls within the united states.
Explains cbs news conducted a poll via telephone from june 9-10, 2013, and the participants were asked about their thoughts on the recent surveillance programs that were leaked, prism and phone surveillance.
Explains that the devastating attacks of 9/11 taught americans and the united states government a lot about security. the government reviewed what happened leading up to the attack to see what they missed.
Explains that the boston marathon was the first domestic terrorist attack on united states soil since september 11, 2001. the quick response of law enforcement and witnesses led to the release of a blurry image of two suspects.
Explains that people are still debating if the attacks could have been prevented. national security agency directors went before congress to defend their surveillance programs whose details were leaked by edward snowden.
Opines that americans want to know that the government is making sure that they are safe, but don't want it snooping on their private lives.
Opines that the nsa's top-secret phone surveillance program is designed to find the killers that live among american civilians.
Describes the pros and cons of surveillance cameras after boston.
Explains the national human genome research institute (nhgri) - homepage.
Describes prime, raymond j., and jonathan newman's "the impact of dna on policing: past, present and future."
Analyzes reaves, jessica, "amber alert: does it work?" time, 13 mar 2003, web. 28 nov. 2013.
Explains that while america slept: the true story of 9/11.
Narrates the usa patriot act's surveillance program.
DNA fingerprinting, one of the great discoveries of the late 20th century, has revolutionized forensic investigations. This reviews about 30 years of progress in DNA Fingerprinting analysis which helps to convict criminals, free the wrongly accused, and identify victims of crime, disasters, and war. Current standard methods based on short tandem repeats (STRs) are covered. Advancements and expanding forensic DNA databases are discussed and we ask what the future holds for all types of DNA fingerprinting.
In this essay, the author
Reviews 30 years of progress in dna fingerprinting analysis, which helps convict criminals, free the wrongly accused, and identify victims of crime, disasters and war.
Explains that dna fingerprinting is more important than people think it is. scientists have spent a lot of money to improve the overall dna copying process.
Explains that dna fingerprinting is a method of isolating and identifying elements in the sequence of dna, discovered by alec jeffreys in 1984.
Explains jeffreys' idea of creating a dna fingerprint based on restriction fragment length polymorphism technology, whereby dna fragments were split into single strands and exposed to dna probes.
Explains that dna fingerprinting has greatly improved the speed of dna sequencing. the most common use is in forensics. it could convict criminals, prove the wrongly accused victims innocent, and identify victims of disasters and war.
Explains that dna fingerprinting was used in legal disputes to help solve crimes and determine paternity. the technique was challenged over concerns about sample contamination and faulty preparation procedures.
Explains that sir alec jeffreys has moved away from minisatellites to think about alternative ways of detecting inherited rearrangements in our dna.
Opines that dna fingerprinting has been a useful tool in the scientific community because it has caught many criminals that thought they "homefree", freed innocent people, and helped paternity confusions.
McGraw, D., & Locy, T. (2000). DNA and the Death Penalty. U.S. News & World Report. 128(23). P.20-21
In this essay, the author
Opines that the commission will evaluate the humaneness and constitutionality of the death penalty.
Explains that the commission needs to decide whether the death penalty violates constitutional rights. many people have claimed that it is unconstitutional because it's cruel and unusual punishment.
Explains that lethal injection is likely to cause pain and this information comes from people in the medical field.
Explains that after barbiturate anesthetic sodium drug is administered, inmates are given pancuronium bromide, which stops the inmate's breathing and heart from beating.
Argues that lethal injection is cruel and unusual punishment, which is illegal in the eyes of the federal government.
Analyzes the issue of death penalty convictions being overturned in multiple states. in illinois alone, thirteen people could have been put to death when they didn't deserve it.
Opines that it would be advantageous for all on death row to have to take a dna test and for that testing to be submitted for evaluation in the case.
Opines that the death penalty should be abolished, even though it costs more than non-death penalty murder cases.
Agrees with the death penalty because some people commit the most heinous crimes and cannot be rehabilitated so there is no reason to keep such individuals alive. prison staffs are in more danger having to work with these people every single day and night.
Opines that the process should be sped up and only qualified medical staff should handle the drugs. prison staff shouldn't be the ones to handle drugs because they're not trained.
Opines that the death penalty should be considered when dealing with the most serious and gruesome criminals.
Should all newborn babies have their DNA fingerprint stored on a central database?
DNA fingerprinting is a process that has been subject to widespread debate ever since it has come into practise. Fingerprinting involves identifying and creating an image of a person’s genetic information. As each individual carries their own DNA fingerprint—meaning that no two will ever be the same—it is often used for identification purposes and can produce a very reliable, if not indisputable result.
In this essay, the author
Explains that dna fingerprinting is a process that has been subject to widespread debate ever since it has come into practise.
Explains that dna determines the function and structure of all living things. the nucleotides are arranged in a double helix structure, joined in the centre by weak hydrogen bonds formed between complementary base pairs.
Explains how the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) process is used to create a dna fingerprint.
Opines that dna fingerprinting is important in law enforcement, as it can be used as reliable evidence in court to solve the crime.
Argues that the idea of a central database harbouring the dna profiles of all citizens is an invasion of privacy and could be abused by potential employers.
Opines that dna fingerprinting holds both benefits for society and pitfalls. it is beneficial in law enforcement, paternity testing, and increasing safety of citizens.
Opines that the creation of a database would be valuable, but the use of the database should be restricted to government agencies or medical situations.
As the national legislations operate so differently, a worldwide system to collect and analyse the DNA profiles from criminal databases seems to be a far-fetched dream currently.
In this essay, the author
Explains that it is considered the standard for identification of humans in any kind of mass disaster situations.
Explains that dna provides an identification of high accuracy because the chance of two individuals to have the same dna profile is highly unlikely.
Explains that biometric identification provides for an archived dna profile that decreases the response time for the identification after any disaster.
Opines that dna may be the only viable method for identification when damage to the body is involved.
Explains that dna collection requires accurate collection, costly equipments and well-trained staff, which may not be available in remote or non-developed areas.
Explains that results of dna analyses are not available immediately. generating a profile and its interpretation takes time.
Explains that due to heat, moisture and storage of samples, degradation may happen faster or it may limit the amount of usable dna at the incident site.
Explains nuclear dna cannot be used in case of fire, decomposition, or when skeletal remains are available for identification.
Explains that a physical sample must be taken in this case where as in the case of other biometric systems, an image or recording would be sufficient.
Explains that mtdna is the only tool present for genetic identification of the body remains.
Explains dna typing evidence has been used since 1985 to prove a person guilty or innocent in the courts of law.
Identifies the victims during mass fatalities by comparing their dna with that of their biological relatives.
Describes the array of 20–30 autosomal strs (short tandem repeats) which comply with the standards used in the databases across the world.
Explains the signature and individual polymorphisms dwelling in the coding and control regions of the mitochondrial genome.
Explains that the on-site dna analysis has changed the process of collecting dna in the future, which means that dna can be taken from any arrestee.
Explains that dna fingerprinting was discovered by professor sir alec jefferys, department of genetics in the leichester lab in 1984.
Explains that human beings have 23 pairs of chromosomes which consists of their dna blueprint. five percent of the human genome is made up of genes, the remaining are non-coding sequences called junk dna.
Explains that dna typing is not the only method of human identification, but can be used as a preference to other methods in disaster situations due to its many advantages.
Explains the difference between nuclear dna and mtdna. while nuclear contains the genetic information both parents, it is an exact copy of the mother’s.
Explains that to augment the capabilities of dna typing, additional technologies such as chip technology, micro arrays, mass spectrometry, and robotics have come up.
Opines that the high error rates are preventing the ngs technologies from being used in forensic routines as a biometric tool.
Explains that in germany, dna collection is regulated by the criminal procedure rules and usage of dna profiling for identification has been excluded.
Hines, Nico. “Father of DNA evidence, Sir Alec Jeffreys, calls for database to be cut”. The Times. 10 Sept 2009. Web.
In this essay, the author
Explains that dna is the blueprint of life. it stores our genetic information which is in charge of how our physical appearance will look like.
Narrates the case of kirk noble bloodsworth, convicted of first degree murder and rape in 1985 and sentenced to death a month later.
Opines that bloodsworth would not have been able to prove his innocence if it hadn't been for all the mistakes committed during the investigation and the trial itself.
Explains that the defense appealed the decision on the basis that they had not been given a chance to review some evidence the prosecution had to offer.
Describes how dr. alec jeffreys and his team came up with dna fingerprinting to identify a person based on their dna profiles. bloodsworth first heard of this new method of testing dna while in prison.
Explains that dr. blake's lab was the only lab that guaranteed morin and bloodsworth that no dna would be destroyed in the process of the analysis being done.
Analyzes how bloodsworth, kirk noble, and sir alec jeffreys were exonerated by dna evidence. the shannon ravenel book was published in 2004.
The origins of DNA were first discovered during 1857 by Gregor Mendel the "Father of Genetics”, whom was performing an experiment of genetics with pea plants, and would provide a basic foundation towards DNA and Genetics. Friedrich Miescher and Richard Altmann in 1869 were also part of the first people to discover DNA. While testing some sperm of a salmon, they discover a strange substance that they would name as "nuclein", which is known as DNA. This new form of "nuclein" (DNA) would be found to only exist in chromosomes. Frederick Griffith, a researcher, found the basis on DNA, from a molecule inheritance experiment involving mice and two types of pneumonia. His findings were that, when virulent disease is heated up (to kill) and is injected into a mouse, the mouse survives. Unlike the second mouse that has been injected with non-virulent disease and virulent disease (that had been heated and killed) is killed. This would be caused by an inheritance of molecule (transformation) of virulent bacteria passing on a characteristic to the non-virulent. DNA findings would continue to be tested and tried to better understand how DNA works.
In this essay, the author
Explains how dna was discovered by gregor mendel, friedrich miescher, and richard altmann in 1869. frederick griffith found the basis on dna from a molecule inheritance experiment involving mice and two types of pneumonia.
Explains that dna is a double-stranded helix, made up of four bases. phoebus levene discovered them in 1929 and linked them to the string of nucleotide units through phosphate-sugar-base groups.
Explains that dna profiling is one of the many tools used in forensics, such as rflp (restriction fragment length polymorphism).
Explains that forensic scientists collect dna sources of semen, saliva, hair follicle, body cells, skin, and blood. they must wear gloves, mask and use disposable instruments to prevent contamination.
Explains that dna samples are sent to nearby labs to be tested and compare to codis, which is run by the fbi investigators, and the software looks for dna match to its 13 numbers.
Explains that dna cannot guarantee conviction or release, but it does help eliminate suspects from a case. the innocence project in new york uses dna to help wrongfully convicted people.
Explains that dna timeline: dna science from mendel to today. cold spring harbor laboratory, n.d.
Describes the free dictionary's "chain of custody" and the combined dna index system. norrgard, karen.
States wittmeyer, jacqui. "can dna demand a verdict?" university of utah. marshall university forensic science center.
DNA fingerprinting is one of the greatest identification systems we have to-date to recognize an individual or living organism. Every living creature is genetically different in its own way, except in the rare case of twins, triples, etc. DNA is the serial number for living things, and is a combination of four nucleotides (thymine, cytosine, adenine and guanine). (Robertson, Ross, & Burgoyne, 2002) Each individual contains a unique sequence that is specific to that one organism.
In this essay, the author
Explains that dna fingerprinting is one of the greatest identification systems we have to-date to recognize an individual or living organism.
Explains that dna can degrade over time, resulting in inaccurate information. reactions with water are thought to be responsible for most bond degradation. accuracy is also an issue.
Explains that in the united kingdom, any offence committed by an adult is kept on file for 5 years, plus the length of any custodial sentence.
Opines that as dna use increases, we may be challenged at balancing our constitutional rights and freedom.