Before 1860 Italy was a collection of independent states controlled by other European powers or the rich noble families of the region. After Napoleon’s defeat in 1815, the Congress of Vienna split Italy into eight independent states with major influences from the surrounding powers of Spain, France and especially Austria. Uprisings against the state governments swept the country, but were suppressed by the Habsbergs1 in Northern Italy. This however, was soon to change. Giuseppe Mazzini, Count Camilo Benso Cavour and Giuseppe Garibaldi organized and inspired the people of Italy to unite and support a solid constitution which was not only key to unification but gave long term stability to Italy.
Instead of a French ruling government, the Italian people wanted their own government (12, pg 75). The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen passed by the National Assembly in 1789 was the main foundations for a constitutional monarchy in France. Though warped and misled by the Jacobins of the National Convention within the period of the Reign of Terror, the French Directory allowed for neutrality between both ideas of government. Furthermore, the overthrow of the Directory allowed for the rise of Napoleon Bonaparte, who spread his ideas of nationalism across Europe, specifically through his Code, and evidently shown in the German and Italian states.
This was most likely devised from the historic past of the Roman Empire. Some may say this was a bold and unrealistic base to form a personal ideology however to Mussolini this was an important tool to gather support from all sections of the Italian population especially in the early years of the fascist government. However these seemed like nothing more than a set of loose goals, without taking into consideration the circumstances. This could explain his need to derive immediate power within Italy and influence across Europe. In his first speech as Prime Minister to the Chamber of Deputies M... ... middle of paper ... ...uments on reasoning behind Mussolini’s policies and actions.
In Italian Fascism: Its Origins and Development, Alexander De Grand clarifies the many promises Benito Mussolini fabricated for the Italian people in order to get them to join his cause such as the improvement on poverty with the rise of a new Roman Empire. De Grand also gives an opposite view, with some citizens seeing Fascism as a “model of efficiency.” In Melton S. Davis’ Who Defends Rome?, t... ... middle of paper ... ...efection from the Axis in 1943. London: Oxford University Press, 1971. Secondary Sounces: Albrecht-Carrie, Rene. "The Four Power Pact, 1933 by Konrad Hugo Jarausch."
By the year 1861, a unified Italy was... ... middle of paper ... ...e the beginning of its unification, Italy has battled with the differences of the north and south. It will take a long time to achieve economic stability in the south, but one that must be reached in order to increase the economic growth for the whole country. With its strong nationalistic views, Italy is well on its way to achieving its goals. Works Cited CIA-World Factbook-Italy. 2001. http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/it.html (26 Nov. 2001).
This was due to the fact of the strong army of the Austrian General Radetsky. As a result, Charles Albert abdicated and was succeeded by Victor Emmanuel II, who played a greater role in the final and successful Unification of Italy in 1870. The development of Nationalism from 1830 to 1848 can be considered as the period where the core ideas of the Unification of Italy truly sprang. Driven by the ambition of Mazzini, to the influences of writers and philosophers, further to the application through media, economy, and religion, all led to the strengthening of nationalism throughout many areas in Italy. Even though their first official attempt to suppress the Austrians and establish a unification had failed in the Revolutions of 1848, it had delivered an even stronger desire for a unified Italy and had proved that unity among the states was possible.
In 1865-1871, the prime minister of Prussia Otto von Bismarck used nationalism to unify the originally separated German provinces. He united the German states through a series of “wars of unification” against Denmark, France and Austria. (Acemoglu, 2009) In 1871, William I of Prussia became Kaiser of Germany and this marked the Second Reich. Nationalism also led to the unification of Italy. Although the Italian peninsula shared a common language, they hav... ... middle of paper ... ...proletariat but it was the first time in history where the population successfully revolted against the monarchy and established a Republic.
From here Mussolini was known as “Il Duce” (the leader). His main goals was to bring a new Roman Empire and have a country free from communism held together with strong national unity. Italy had Eritrea as a colony until Mussolini felt threatened and thought Haile Selassie of Abyssinia (Ethiopia) was going to invade Eritrea. Prior to all of this in 1895, there was the First Italo-Abyssinian War where Italy had already won over Eritrea in the Treaty of Wichale. In the Italian version in Article XVII of the Treaty of Wichale made Rome Et... ... middle of paper ... ...nly thing left to do was to carry on and appear to have no knowledge of the horrors that were going on because the Nazi party was too far in the government.
Even though it was not the original intention, through the successful foreign policy of Piedmont, the enlargement of the existing Piedmont-Sardinia was made possible and thus a northern unified Italy was created and this was the most major step to the unification of Italy. Piedmont was only interested in increasing its power and influence and in promoting its own interest. However, the interests of Piedmont-Sardinia coincided with those of a united Italy. Piedmont’s determination to continue the struggle for independence and its resistance to Austrian control combined with its effective domestic and foreign policies allowed for it to form the foundation for the unification of Italy,
That is what the people were striving for. They thought Mazzini’s ideas too radical- and they were trying to get away from religion running the nation as it had done in the past. They wanted a distinct separation between church and state. Cavour was the man who made the change, but he sought unity only for northern Italy to become a greatly expanded kingdom of Sardenia. “In the 1850’s Cavour worked to consolidate Sardenia as a liberal state cap...