When it comes to slavery the exact amount slaves that were kidnapped and taken to the new world is in question that many ponder about within the world. However, in the “Slave Trade” article, published by Dr. Bailey, the slave trade database (created by Harvard University) concluded, that at least eleven million slaves were transported from 1519 and 1867. Just let that number soak into your head “elven million” and to add more pain to the sore, more than twenty-seven thousand voyages helped delivered these “elven million”. Not once on any of these voyages, where the feelings of these innocent people taken into consideration; meanwhile, never once was the potential physiological entrapment of these slaves mind was taken into consideration either....
The Kidnapped African slaves suffered horrible and inhumane conditions aboard the slave ships, while sailing to British North America. Most of the slaves were young adult, men. They outnumbered women 2 to 1. Children under the age of 14 years, accounted for 10% of the slave population aboard the ships. Many of the slaves were shackled from their wrists to their ankles for the entire duration of the voyages. Slave ship captains would often pack their ships to full capacity, and beyond, to increase profits. This practice would leave slaves packed tightly against one another, with hardly any room to move. Captains would often provide very little food or hygiene. Slaves were usually forced to relieve their bodily functions in buckets, or in the very spaces they laid in. These grim conditions led to a rapid spread of diseases, such as: The Flux, Smallpox, and Scurvy. Most slaves that survived the voyage, suffered from dehydration, fluid loss thru perspiration, vomiting, diarrhea and a shortage of drinking water. The mortality rate aboard the ships averaged approximately 15%, but sometimes...
The slaves were not afforded the luxury the white people enjoyed that was the universal belief that one’s life has value simply because they are human; the white oppressors did not see the enslaved Africans as humans, therefore they did not afford them the inherent value bestowed upon human life. The practices conducted aboard the slave ships coincided with the believe that the Africans were nothing but cargo or livestock. Hine describes the practice of “tight packing” writing, “most captains were “tight packers,” who would squeeze human beings together in hope that large numbers would offset increased deaths.” She continues in a subsequent passage claiming, “one third of the Africans subjected to the trade perished between their capture and their embarkation on a slave ship” (Hine, 2012). There is no clearer indication that the white slavers felt the lives of the enslaved Africans were worthless than the blatant disregard for slave mortality aboard the ships. The captors attempted to keep the enslaved alive simply in order to receive monetary recompense, however, Hine’s describes slavers as being exceptionally cruel to enslaved Africans aboard ships despite the possible monetary consequences. Finally, Hine describes how the amount of value placed on an enslaved African’s life and health was directly proportional to the amount of money that slave was worth, when describing the experience of women aboard slave ships. Hine writes, “because the women were less valuable commodities, crew members felt they had license to abuse them sexually” (Hine, 2012). This passage describes how different enslaved Africans faced different amounts of cruelty and abuse based on the assumed price this person was worth. Not only were all the enslaved black people seen as less than human, some people were
Exhausted and undernourished by the time they boarded the large oceangoing vessels, the captives were placed in dark and crowded holds. Most had been poked and prodded by slave traders, and some had been branded to ensure that a trader received the exact individuals he had purchased. Once in the hold, they might wait for weeks before the ship finally set sail. By that time, the foul-smelling and crowded hold became a nightmare of disease and despair. There was never sufficient food or fresh water for the captives, and women especially were subject to sexual abuse and rape by crew members. Many captives could not communicate with each other since they spoke different languages, and none of them knew exactly where they were going or what would happen when
The slave Traders genuinely did not care about the treatment of slaves, and they treated them how ranchers would treat their cattle. This is proven by Zinn, “They are brought down to a large plain, where the ships surgeon examines every part of them, to the smallest member, men and women being stark naked… Such are allowed good and sound are set on one side… Marked on the breast with a red hot iron, imprinting the mark of the French, English, or Dutch companies” (28). The Traders did not care about the treatment of the slaves only that the slaves got to their future Owners marked and ready for servitude. If a few slaves were lost along the way it did not bother the Traders much, they still got their profit and moved on. While the slave Owners had to treat them a little better because they were their property now. The treatment of slaves in America became known as, “It was a harsh servitude, but they had rights which slaves brought to America did not have, and they were altogether different from the human cattle of the slave ships and the American plantations” (27). The slave Traders treated the slaves like products while the slave Owners simply thought of them as farming equipment. The Owners knew in order to prosper they needed to take care of their equipment, but the slave Traders had the mentality that “there’s more where that came from”. It is in this way the slave Owners and Traders are
Slave trading dates back to ancient times, but it did not become popular until the fifteenth century when the Portugese began engaging in slave trading for profit. The colonization of the Americas brought about a new wave of slave importation in the late seventeenth century. A large percentage of the indentured servants and Native Americans were dying from diseases bought to the land by Europeans, and the American colonists were forced to look elsewhere for laborers. They discovered that African Americans were virtually immune to tropical diseases, cheap to import, and were experienced agrarians, so they championed slavery under the premise that African Americans were inferior to their own race. Because slaves were cheap, it was much easier for a planter to work a slave to his death and replace him with another than to treat him well. By the end of the seventeenth century, African American were being imported to the Americas and sold to planters by the thousands. Slavery, indeed, became the “cornerstone” of America’s economic success. Without the grueling labor of the slaves, the booming sugar, rice, cotton, and tobacco industries would have ceased to exist in the New World. As the Americas evolved from a simple farming society into an agricultural stronghold, settlers became more and more dependent on slavery. By the mid-eighteenth century, slaves vastly outnumbered colonists. During the seventeenth, eight...
The living conditions on the ships were awful. Slaves were crammed into a small area overflowing with other slaves all crowded together. Slaves battled dehydration, being given little to no water, and malnourishment, being given small amounts of food, and no place to use the bathroom. Viruses like scurvy and fly disease spread rapidly throughout the ship. Slaves also battled dehydration and malnourishment. The long time on the ships is another condition the slaves had to go through for months at a time. Many slaves died before getting to their destination.
"Perhaps worse than the physical pain was the psychological damage done to the slaves who were whipped" (Currie 47). If a person wasn't born a slave, they were forced into being one. Slaves were commonly captives from the losing side of a battle, even the defeated soldiers' families could be enslaved. People would also sell their children to pay off a large debt. Once a slave was captured, there was a journey to survive. They were transported in large cargo ships named slave ships. Here, they would travel up to months while suffering from mental and physical abuse. While on board, each slave was stripped naked and inspected by the captain or a surgeon. Men were shoved under the deck and fixed with heavily painful leg irons. At times, they were not even able to move, or stand, from being too crammed together. The women and children were kept in w different section of the ship. Occasionally, they would be let onto the deck of the ship to move around. Although, this often brought them sexual abuse from the crew. On days with good weather, slaves would be woken up in the middle of the morning to exercise on the deck. Usually, slaves were fed twice a day, but if they refused to eat they would be force fed ("Life" 2-3). Also, horrible hygienic conditions meant they were in constant risk of getting infected with diseases. A harmless disease could easily turn into a deadly one on a slave ship, and if a slave were to die, their dead body would be thrown overboard.
Starting in the 15th century, exploration gained momentum throughout the European countries because of the massive amount of resources that the land in the New World provided. In order to make use of these resources, there would have to be a large amount of laborers to do the work. The Europeans refused to do the labor, and the Native American population had decreased due to diseases and war. However, Europeans knew of another approach for cheap labor, the African Slave Trade, which gained demand through the middle of the 15th century. Between 1450 and 1870 over ten million humans were captured and taken from Africa to become slaves. The African slave trade was influenced negatively by the absence of humanitarian concerns because of the need for labor, the increased importance of gaining profit, and assertion of
It is prudent to speak here to the inhumane way in which the slaves were transported during this first leg of the journey. The trading of slaves was very lucrative for the Europeans. As it goes in business, the higher the demand, the larger the quantities supplied. All the slaves were branded to show to whom they belonged, and the male slaves were shackled together and packed in the hole like sardines, while the women and children were sometimes allowed to stay on deck. Any acts of aggression by the men or women resulted in severe beatings to discourage the behavior. Imagine being beaten and shackled with a rival tribe man or not being able to communicate with the person beside you because you both spoke different languages!