Lymphatic malformations are rare masses consisting of fluid-filled spaces that are caused by abnormal development of the lymphatic system. This malformations are usually found by birth or by the age of 2-years-old. These malformations can affect any part of the body except for the brain. The most common area is that head or neck. When they are found in a fetus, at birth the masses are usually spongy, soft, and non-tender masses. Some malformations can be massive but regardless of size they can be potentially causes danger to near by structures or organisms and disfigurement of the area affected by the mass. Cystic Hygroma is a lymphatic malformation that can be cause by Down syndrome, Turner syndrome, Trisomy 18, and Noonan syndrome (WebMD).
Cystic Hygroma (CH), Hygroma meaning water-containing tumor, was first discovered in 1843. It is also known as Cystic Lymphangioma, which is also known as a macro-cystic lymphatic malformation. Cystic Hygroma is a large fluid-filled are that can effect any lymphatic area such as, the neck, axilla (underarm), and groin area. Only 20% of CH occurs in the axilla. It is also rare for CH to occur at limbs, chest wall, cheek, and over the shoulder and deltoid (Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery). This disease is rare and is only found in 1% of pregnancies, which is about 1 per 16,000 live births (Medscape). This disease is also almost always detected by the 20th week, the first trimester, of pregnancy (Prenatal Ultrasound Findings-Cystic Hygroma). CH is also reported to have no racal predominance but African Americans have not seemed to get CH as much as other races. It also no sex predominance and sex distribution is equal. Most CH’s are evident by birth, and most is presented by age 2. Some CH can ...
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