Second Language Pedagogy: Oxford: Oxford University Press. Richards & Rodgers (2001) (2004) .Curriculum Development in Language Teaching . Cambridge University Press. Richards & Renandya (2002). Methodology in Language Teaching.
An ESP programme acn use tests such as, In-class assignment results (formative), mid-term examination results (formative), final term examination/achievement test results (summative) as well as samples of students’ writing, self and peer assessment, and my personal observation to monitor the learning progress and make any changes that situational factors may require in the course design or the teaching methodology. 1.2. Choice of Assessment with its underlying principles Assessment refers to what students can or cannot do and this ability is measured against a set of learning objectives that have been proposed in the course design (Gronlund, 1981). For example, a diagnostic test which is a performance based test on an extended sample of writing (McNamara, 2000) can be used to have clear picture of students’ writing ability both grammatical and discoursal. Similarly, achievement tests in formative and summative formats are used to measure the learning progress that has been made to date.
C. A Brief Introduction about Teaching Grammar When it comes to how teachers teach students, a heated debate is raised regarding whether we should use inductive approach or deductive approach. The former refers to the approach realized by providing some implicit focus on grammar during communicative language teaching (Fotos, 1998). On this stage, usually, learners are provided with opportunities to learn passive voice through specified communicative activities, and they are required to explore these grammatical structures in context. As a result, students are sure of the pu... ... middle of paper ... ...rine J. Doughty. (2009).
1. Introduction Needs Analysis (NA) also interchangeably referred to as Needs Assessment is a tool to collect data on the multifaceted needs of the learners’ for an instructional programme. It is basically an information gathering process, fundamental to English Language Teaching (ELT) programmes, and criterial to English for Specific Purposes (ESP) (Dudely Evans: 1998, Hutchinson & Waters: 1987). NA is carried out from the perspective of the learners mostly; however, perceptions of other stakeholders are also taken into account. Warrington (2005) points out that NA, in ELT contexts, may investigate “what kinds of English, native language, and literacy skills the learner already believes he or she has; the literacy contexts in which the learner lives and works; what the learner wants and needs to know to function in those contexts; and what the learner expects to gain from the instructional program.” Furthermore, it “focuses and builds on learners’ accomplishments and abilities rather than on deficits, allowing learners to articulate and display what they already know and can do” (Auerbach & Holt, 1994).
The Practice of English Language Teaching. Pearson Education Limited, 2001. ISBN 0 582 40385 5 Kareva V. The Influence of Classroom Communication on Student Commitment to University. South East European University dissertation. (2011) Available from firstname.lastname@example.org Test English Proficiency.
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In fact, there are some points which can help student have a comprehensive overview to the conditional sentence, as long as students master those learning skills, they would have better understanding of it. This paper will discuss the essential components of grammar in conditional clauses not only in sentence but also in discourse level. The paper mainly contains two parts within six sections. The first part of this paper intends to evaluate Miss Wong’s teaching approach of the conditional clauses, which indicate the merits and demerits for her teaching method. Then the impact of Miss Wong’s approach on student learning would be included.
Pavičic Takač, V. (2008). Vocabulary learning strategies and foreign language acquisition. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters. Schneider, S. (2011). The language of thought: A new philosophical direction.