Historically the education system was mainly of the teachings and learning, that focuses is on content or discipline that was being taught. This type of teaching and learning is known as “Subject Base Approach or Subject Centered Approach”. In subject-centered curricula, the subject matter itself serves as the organizing structure for what is studied and how it is studied. In its purest form, the curriculum for each subject-area is designed by subject-matter experts and is intended to be studied using subject-specific methods and tools of inquiry (Burton, 2013). The Subject Base Approach is the process of the in-depth teaching and learning of specific subjects or disciplines in isolation.
Principles of learning identify specific factors that consistently influence learning and describe the particular effects that these factors have. Studies have shown given the same piece of information, individuals interpret it differently and learn it at different rates through different methods. Thus, the challenge of effective instruction is not only delivering the desired instruction, but in a way that learners of various background, skills, and experiences can take that learning into their personal world of knowledge and make it their own. By addressing the fundamental concern of instructional design and incorporating learning theories to support the process of learning, Robert Gagné's instructional design theory has emerged as a primary model used for effective instructional design. This paper will outline Gagné's instructional design theory and provide information on how it is applied to instructional technology.
Introduction The following literature review is an analysis of a number of components of the hidden curriculum, as it was initially conceived in the literature and as it has developed over time. As the adjective proposes, such a curriculum is not obvious and could be understood as the underbelly of the more apparent mandated curriculum. The conversation of hidden curriculum touches on provocative questions of power, authority, inequity, control and political suppression of social class. The concept of hidden curriculum is itself every so often hidden in the literature. Competing Concepts of Hidden Curriculum The notion of a hidden curriculum was established to discuss the implicit or unspoken values, norms and behaviours that are present in the educational setting.
Traditionally, curriculum is defined or recognized as the sum of information, facts, concepts, ideas, and experiences that is delivered to students by teachers. But, the modern concept of curriculum is different from the traditional concept because curriculum definition is developed due to several reasons such as cultural changes resulting from scientific and technical development, the change in the objectives of education and the nature of the curriculum itself affected by students, environment, cultures, society, and theories... ... middle of paper ... ...hips with others. On the other hand, overt curriculum is the written or the official curriculum which it “gives the basic lesson plan to be followed” in the classroom. Furthermore, the overt curriculum provides the students with science, mathematics, literature, and social studies. Many educators define this type of curriculum as subject matter curriculum.
(1987). What's What in Communicative Language - Teaching. English Teaching Forum, XXV(4), pp. 16-21. Taylor, B. P. (1987).
The Special Relationship. Ed. William Rogers Louis and Hedley Bull. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1986. 43-64.
Although somewhat vague compared to summative assessment, several key features help frame formative assessment. First, formative assessment happens while learning is taking place as opposed to at the end of content delivery. Rather, this is considered “assessment for learning,” (Chappuis, J., Stiggins, Chappuis, S., & Arter, 2012, pg. 5). The format is formal or informal, but the outcome in its use is an in-progress check of what students know and what students do not know.
The method of teaching depends on the nature of the subject, and the tact of the teacher. This essay is aimed at assessing teaching methods and strategies used in schools and discuss innovations that should take place to make them more effective and learner centred. Brandes and Ginnis (1996:167) acknowledge that the movement from established well-known ground to explore new teaching strategies is a tough challenge to teachers. In a classroom, a teaching strategy is a generalized plan for a lesson which includes structure, instructional objectives and an outline of planned tactics, necessary to implement the strategies. Reece and Walker (2002) describe a teaching strategy as a combination of student activities supported by the use of appropriate resources to provide particular learning resources.