Cross Sectional Study

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CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH AND METHODOLOGY 3.1. Introduction In chapter one, the research topic was formulated. Chapter two presented a literature review on the independent variable and dependent variable, giving a broad background, development and definitions. In this chapter, the research design will be presented by defining the study type and explaining sample techniques, sample selection and sample size. The questionnaire design and administration, data analysis, reliability and validity will also be discussed. 3.2. Study type “Quantitative study involves collecting data from relatively large samples, the data collected are usually presented as number, often in table, on graphs and on chart” (McGivern 2006: 57). Qualitative study is less easy to define. It explores questions such as what, why and how rather than how many and how much, it is primarily concerned with meaning rather than measuring (Keegan 2009: 11). This study is quantitative in nature. Cross-sectional study is a type of research design that involves collecting information from any given sample of the population just once (Wiid and Diggines 2009:56). In a longitudinal study, the study population is visited in the number of times at regular intervals usually over a long period, to collect the required information (Kumar 2005:98). This was a cross sectional study. Descriptive studies are also called observation, because one observes the subjects without intervening. The simplest descriptive study is a case, which reports data on only one subject (Bell 2005:41). Survey study is regarded as biased estimates of population parameters according to Ader, Mellenbergh and Hand (2008:1). This was a descriptive study. 3.3. Sample techniques Probability sampling is also known as ‘... ... middle of paper ... ...well a research design (and the research method and the measures or question used) delivers accurate, clear and unambiguous evidence with which to answer the research problem. Validity is an indicator of whether the research measures what it claims to measure. In this study, reliability will not be used, because the sample size is based on a small sample selected. In this study only validity will be used. The supervisor has checked the validity of the questionnaire and content validity is applied. 3.10. Conclusion In this chapter, the study type, sample techniques and sample selection were explained. The sample size was defined; questionnaire design, questionnaire administration, data analysis, reliability and validity were defined and discussed. In the following chapter, results will be presented and discussed. Pie charts, bar graphs and tables will also be used.
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