Crohn’s Disease was named after an American gastroenterologist, Dr. Burrill Bernard Crohn, in 1932. He and his colleagues discovered an abnormal pathogen, Mycobacterium paratuberculosis while studying a related disease, ulcerative colitis, which belongs to a larger group if illnesses called Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). The discovery was made while studying the effects of ulcerative colitis in cattle and noticing the similar characteristics in humans. The infections had an abnormal response with the body’s immune system in both the cattle and humans.
Crohn’s disease is a life-long condition effecting victims of any age. It is considered a form of an inflammatory bowel disease that causes inflammation in the digestive system. The cause of the disease is unknown. The inflammation is due to the immune system attacking the healthy cells throughout the body’s gastrointestinal tract.
Many people have suffered some form of gastrointestinal discomfort in their life. For patients with Crohn’s Disease this can be a daily occurrence that greatly affects their everyday lives. Crohn’s disease is an inflammatory disease that targets the gastrointestinal tract. Crohn’s most commonly will occur in the lower GI tract involving the small and large intestine and colon but can be found anywhere throughout the GI tract from mouth to anus. Crohn’s is lumped together in a larger group of illnesses more commonly referred to as inflammatory bowel disease. ("About crohn's disease," 2009)
Crohn’s Disease along with Ulcerative Colitis are two of the major forms of Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Crohn's disease also known as regional enteritis is a chronic disease. The disease affects different parts of the digestive system where ulcers develop, usually towards the end of the small intestine and the beginning of the large intestine. However it can develop from the mouth to the anus as they are a part of the digestive tract.
Crohn’s disease is a disease that causes inflammation, swelling, and irritation to any part of the digestive tract which is also known as the gastrointestinal tract or GI tract. The disease most commonly targets the ileum which is a part in the small intestine. The digestive tract is organs that connect your mouth to your anus and it releases hormones and enzymes for the digestion in food. The inflammation caused by the disease goes deep into the lining of the digestive tract. It creates a stricture in the small intestine which is a narrowing of the pathway that can slow the movement of food through the intestine. The stricture can then move to large intestine which can cause many problems for absorption. When the disease causes the intestine to swell it can also be very problematic because the large intestine wouldn’t be able to function properly. Crohn’s disease is considered as an inflammatory bowel disease.
Analysis of Crohn's Disease
An inflammatory bowel disease is characterized by intermittent and recurrent abdominal pain associated with ulceration in bowel function. Inflammatory bowel disease is a group of chronic disorders that cause inflammation or ulceration in the small and large intestines. Most often, inflammatory bowel disease is classified as ulceration colitis or Crohn’s disease but may be referred to as colitis, enteritis, ileitis, or proctitis (Crohn's disease-website).
Crohn’s disease is characterized by inflammation of segments of the GI tract. The parts of the tract where Crohn’s disease is most often seen are in the terminal ileum, jejunum, and right side of colon.
Crohn’s Disease is a chronic inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract. It is one of two disease under the category “IBD”, or Irritable Bowel Disease, the other being Ulcerative Colitis. Crohn’s is named after Dr. Burrill B. Crohn, who, along with Dr. Leon Ginzburg and Dr. Gordon D. Oppenheimer, described the disease back in 1932. Crohn’s commonly affects the ileum and the beginning of the colon, but it can affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract, from the mouth to the anus. Crohn’s can affect the entire bowel wall, while it can also “skip” over patches of the diseased intestine, leaving some unaffected parts of the area. In a healthy gastrointestinal tract, there are many harmless bacteria, which aid in digestion. The immune system will attack and kill any foreign invaders. In Crohn’s patients, the normal bacteria are mistaken for invaders, and the immune system responds. Cells will travel out of the blood and to the intestines, in turn producing inflammation, the normal response. The inflammation does not go down, which leads to chronic inflammation, ulceration, and a thickening of the intestinal wall. These lead to the patient’s symptoms.
Inflammatory bowel diseases affect millions of Americans every year. While their causation has been connected to the nervous system for quite some time, recent research has also suggested that these diseases may be caused by abnormalities in the enteric nervous system. The enteric nervous system is found in the intestines. It has more neurons than the entire spinal cord, and it provides neurological signaling between the central nervous system and the intestines. (Furness, 2011). Inflammatory bowel diseases include ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. While their cause is generally disputed, they lead to painful sores in the intestines and last for a patient's lifetime. (Dugdale, & Longstreth, 2011). Inflammatory bowel diseases have no known cure. While many studies have taken place, the first step in finding a cure for inflammatory bowel diseases is deciding what their cause is. The study of the enteric nervous system may lead to the discovery of what this cause maybe.
At this time, the medical community is unsure of what causes Crohn’s Disease. There is speculation it could be caused by genetics, microbial, immunological, environmental, dietary, vascular, psychosocial factors, including smoking, oral contraceptives, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs). The studies have shown that those who have family history of Crohn’s Disease have a possible higher risk of developing the disease. Although is seems to be a very complicated genetic process of inheriting. There are several genes that contribute to the final possible cause of Crohn’s Disease. The NOD2 gene (also kno...
Ulcerative colitis progresses from the rectum and moves proximally. Distal disease refers to inflammation that is limited to the rectum (proctitis) or rectum and sigmoid colon. Here it is referred to as proctosigmioditis. If the disease is more extensive it includes the left side of the colon and can cover the splenic flexure. This occurs in 40% of patients. Extensive colitis occurs up to the hepatic flexure. Pan colitis affects the whole of the colon and this can affect up to 20% of patients. Some patients with pan colitis have involvement of the terminal ileum, this is caused by an incompetent ileocaecal valve.