Not only the environmental features such as light, climate or topography but also cultural features such as local identity and the local materials could define the word of context. Like Norman Foster, in contextualism, a significance approach is to indicate material, technical and visual continuity with its surrounding. Moreover, in Holl’s architecture, every situation refers to a specific context for an architectural thought. This context doesn’t propose a significant or objective situation, contrarily it is a subjective commentary including historical, cultural and physical meanings (Yorgancıoğlu, 2004). For Holl, the exterior voids take references from the interior voids, which constitutes a way of references and situations in the urban context.
Rem Koolhaas, Daniel Liebeskind, Frank Gehry and Zaha Hadid. Modern day ‘starchitects’ who - through their practice of deconstructivist architecture - have heavily influenced the overall approach to today’s architecture. But what exactly is deconstructivist architecture? Is it a derivative of postmodernist principles, or something of its own entirety? Through the analysis of particular modern day architects and their works, deconstructivism ascertains its emergence as a separate architectural form that contrasts with and challenges postmodern design principles.
Critical Regionalism could also be seen as the best solution to cultural issues and the problems of architectural identity. Frampton’s argument is that critical regionalism should not only answer to context, but it should also value the progress of universal modern architecture. Critical Regionalism, defined by Fred S. Matter “… is an attempt to synthesize the rooted aspects of a region, including physical and cultural characteristics, with appropriate current technology. It is the search for an architecture that is meaningful within its context and at the same time participates in the more universal aspects of a contemporary mobile society.” (Matter. F.S: 1989) In this essay I will discuss how concrete regionalism was presented in the work of Le Corbusier who is the most classic example of this movement, Oscar Niemeyer, and Antoine Predock .
As some critics contended, postmodernism represents a break with the modernist notion that architecture should be technologically rational, austere and functional, discuss the ways in which one postmodern architect has developed strategies which overcome these tendencies. Juxtaposition is seen between the characteristics of early 20th century modern architecture and the artistic endeavours of postmodernism that followed. To represent the ‘Less is More’ (R.Venturi, 1966, pg16) notion the modernist tendencies had adopted, Robert Venturi built a ‘Ghost Structure’ to imply architecture had no longer become an art form and was merely just a ‘spectator’ (Architecturerevived, 2011) in society. This essay will discuss ways in which the architect Robert Venturi adopts methods to overcome these tendencies that architecture has lost meaning and ways in which he attempts to remove himself with any links with the ‘post-modernist’ movement that he is viewed in having. Modern Architects saw their role as ‘reformers,’ (R.Venturi, 1966, pg16) and tended to break with tradition and start anew.
“I believe that the idea of the totality, the finality of the master-plan, is misguided. One should advocate a gradual transformation of public space, a metamorphic process, without relying on a hypothetical time in the future when everything will be perfect. The mistake of planners and architects is to believe that fifty years from now Alexanderplatz will be perfected.” –Daniel Libeskind In the world of architecture, it is important that one make their mark, but in a way that will be able to stand out from the rest. Unlike many things, architecture is very hard to change. With that being said, how can one change it?
As Essay Associating Modernist Architecture, “Form And Function” And Louis H. Sullivan, the Father of Modernist Architecture In general, modern architecture is characterized by the simplification of form and the creation of ornaments from structures and themes of buildings. As stated by US General Service administration (2003), it is a term applied to an overarching movement, with its exact definition and scope varying widely [US General Service administration (2003)]. Form follows function is a famous principle associated with the modern architecture as well as industrial designs of 20th century. This principle stated that the shape of a building or object should primarily be based upon its intended function or purpose. This particular essay going to illustrate the following questions from historical and contextual basis.
Deconstructionist architecture must start from deconstruct the construction at first, with a name indicates its schemes, its intuition and its concepts, or its rhetoric. Deconstruction also contains an insight of fundamental importance for the historian¡¦s conception of what he or she is doing. It uses theory to understand history, and history to understand the theory to construct a more perceptive view of the cultural and social. As deconstructs a structure, it strictly meets the terms of architectural construction and the philosophical construction of the concept of architecture. Therefore, deconstruction is understood to be un-problematically architectural, as it combines with the idea of the system in philosophy, and theory, also the practice and logic ... ... middle of paper ... ...re of architecture.
It would be an oversimplification to suggest that to accept a Modernist account of modem art must imply rejection of a socio-historical view, or vice-versa (the discussion between TJ Clark and Michael Fried about Pollock (TV21) suggests that there is room for negotiation, if not for compromise). It is, however, arguable that a definition of postmodernism should take into consideration both the close interrelationship between Modernist criticism and mid-twentieth century abstract art, which together constituted the dominant hegemony in art from the late 1940s to the early 1960s (and hence the artistic context against which postmodernism in the visual arts evolved), and the social, historical and political context within which art characterised as postmodern has developed. It seems reasonable, therefore, to start by attempting to clarify the critical positions represented by Greenberg and Burgin. Greenberg, in 'Modernist Painting' (1961) and other writings, sets the development of modem art, specifically painting, in the context of the ideas of the Enlightenment philosopher Kant, who 'used logic to establish the limits of logic' (Art in Theory p.755.) Kant thereby established a precedent for ... ... middle of paper ... ...contemporary concepts and concerns.
Civilizations developed by culture and may be of a single diversity or made up with multiple diversities, which draws a negative conclusion of Huntington's essay "The Clash of Civilizations" based on many factors. A closer examination of Huntington's essay reveals that he more or less followed the works even taking the title from Bernard Lewis essay "The Roots of Muslim Rage" where he stated, "that we are facing a mood and movement in Islam far transcending the level of issues and policies and the governments that follow them. This is no less a class of civilizations. Perhaps it is irrational, but surely historic receptions of an ancient rival against our Judeo Christian heritage, our secular present, and the worldwide expansion of both. It is crucially important that we on our si... ... middle of paper ... ...ountid=32521 Huntington S (1996) The Clash of Civilizations http://www.hks.harvard.edu/fs/pnorris/Acrobat/Huntington_Clash.pdf Inglehart,R & Norris,P (2003) The True Clash of Civilizations http://www.globalpolicy.org/component/content/article/162/27604.html NPR (2013) A Look Back At A Predicted 'Clash Of Civilizations http://www.npr.org/2013/09/03/218627286/a-look-back-at-a-predicted-clash-of- civilizations Pfaff, W. (2006).
Through a broader lens, it becomes apparent that additional elements such as the dissemination of style, socio-political culture, learned methods of discourse in exercising power, and artistic ambition all contributed to the baroquization of Rome and Europe as a whole (Hengerer 10). However, seeing the controversies already faced by the Catholic church during this time, the focus can safely be narrowed by evaluating this in the context of the social failures of a specific church, how did Francesco Borromini’s Sant'Ivo alla Sapienza, a masterpiece of opulent Roman Baroque architecture, fail to satisfy the social motives of... ... middle of paper ... ...a Spanish Imperial City." Cohen, Gary B. and Franz A.J. Szabo. Embodiments of Power: Building Baroque Cities in Europe.