Influential factors that influence criminal behaviors are psychological, sociological, and biological. How do we help rehabilitate criminals? Each approach agrees on a criminal’s devotion to aggressive behavior, but they differ in their conclusions. Psychological involves personality, addressing certain felt needs, and defective mental processes. Sociological deals with cause and control of criminality.
We will compare both crime theories. It will also explain how these theories are related to specific crimes. The two theories discussed will also explain the policy implications. Finally, we will address what types of programs can be created to mitigate specific crimes related to the causation theories. Social learning theory is the theory that people learn from other people.
Theorist Ronald Akers extended Sutherland’s differential association theory with a modern viewpoint known as the social learning theory. The social learning theory states that individuals commit crime through their association with or exposure to others. According to Akers, people learn how to be offenders based on their observations around them and their association with peers. Theorist Akers states that for one, “people can become involved in crime through imitation—that is by modeling criminal conduct. Second, and most significant, Akers contended that definition and imitation are most instrumental in determining initial forays into crime” (Lilly, Cullen, and Ball 2011:57).
Behaviorism is a theory that focuses on objectively observable behaviors, while discounting mental activities. Behavior theorists thus define learning as an observable or quantifiable change in behavior through the "universal learning process" known as conditioning. There are two types of conditioning, classical and operant, each of which yield a different behavioral pattern. Classical conditioning, also referred to as, "Pavlovian conditioning," is a type of learning in which an organism learns to associate two stimuli: the conditioned (an initially neutral stimulus) and the unconditioned (a stimulus that routinely triggers an unconditioned response). If the conditioned stimulus accompanies the unconditioned stimulus, one will eventually learn to elicit an anticipatory and preparatory conditioned response in the presence of the conditioned stimulus alone (p 228).
Theories are designed and developed in order to explain the causes and effects of processes and phenomena, as well as to predict likely outcomes. There are many theories that attempt to explain the motives of criminal and deviant behaviours, including strain theory, structural functionalism, and conflict theory (Akers, Krohn, Lanza-Kaduce and Radosevich, 1979). Social learning theory examines the individual learning process, the formation of self, and the influence of society in socialising individuals (Brezina and Piquero, 2002). It is proffered that the formation of one’s identity is a learned response to social stimuli (Brezina and Piquero, 2002). That is, social learning theory postulates that an individual’s identity is not merely the product of the unconscious, but rather the result of modelling oneself in response to the expectations of others.
What social learning theory is? Social learning theory is said to be learned according to Siegel research (2011) "social learning theorist believe that crime is a product of learning the norms, values, and behaviors associated with criminal activity." (p.173). This theory includes two different learning forms which are differential association theory and neutralization theory. Siegel puts it this way (2011) "Two of the most prominent forms of social learning theory: differential association theory and neutralization theory."
This Essay will look at examples of Crime such as shoplifting, fighting, vandalism, drug abuse and the offenders’ recall of their motivations for engaging in criminal behaviours, whilst simultaneously trying to apply effective Criminological theory of Neutralization based on the offenders’ viewpoints. Here we examine a closely related set of criminal events focusing on the ‘crime orientation’ of offenders or how each participant positioned themselves in relation to crime (Teevan, 2000). This Essay will argue that these types of crime are strongly linked to techniques of neutralisation based on offender recounts, although other theories can be applicable due to limitations of providing a single succinct theory. In this sense it is true to argue that attempting to provide a single universal theory of criminal behaviour that subsumes all others is not desirable when one accepts the nature of diversity and possible multiple realities. This perspective highlights that individual theories may provide some helpful insight into the proximate causes of offending for some, yet it may be limited to provide explanations for others (Byrne, Trew, 2005).
Victimology requires the investigator to create a profile of the victim, which in turn can give clues as to the identity of the cri... ... middle of paper ... ...ems that could be wrong with the criminal. All in all, these elements in criminal profiling have helped it become what it is today. Works Cited Turvey, Brent. Criminal Profiling: An Introduction to Behavioral Evidence Analysis. 2nd.
The Impact of Social Intervention on Individuals When attempting to explain the question of what is crime? Two predominate theories emerge, that of a structural explanation and that of an agency. These theories form one of the fundamental debates in Social Science and each offers its own perspective on how free individuals are to act as they chose with out social intervention. As such in this essay I intend to illustrate the key points of each explanation and in turn highlight key methods of evidence used to support them. Those who would describe crime with the foundation on social structures, focus on the collective influences, which drive individuals to behave or conform in certain manners.
Labelling Theory of Crime Introduction The theoretical approaches to crime are all different, but conceptual integrated theoretical models associated with crime and how a person’s behaviour towards crime is viewed and dealt with, through the use of these theoretical approaches to crime. These theoretical approaches to crime include, Lombrosian, Differential Association, Anomie, Labelling, and Critical Criminology. The theory discussed below attempt to explain the meaning and popularity history of the labelling theory. An American sociologist, Howard Becker was the founder of the labelling theory. A significant theory based around the social deviations and the self-identity and behaviour of an individual may be impacted or influenced.