It is important to further explore crimes that are drug related in order to see the root causes. Some people are likely to generalize about the causes of drug related crimes and say that they are simply related to people who do not do any good for our society. However, in certain instances drugs can be used as a source of income for people and they commit crimes in order to facilitate that goal (Nurco, 1998). These people have no way out of their drug lives and therefore may not necessarily choose this life style but are brought up into it. Similarly the background of the people who become involved in drug usage which could result in crime are predisposed to drug related behavior early on in their households (Winfree et.
We do not just inherit criminal behavior but rather learn it through our associations with other people in society. The second important proposition is that “The specific direction of motives and drives is learned from definitions of the legal codes as favorable or unfavorable” (Sutherland 1992). This lines with the idea that if someone sees the law as something to break then you are more likely to follow those actions. If an individual exposes himself to criminal associations as opposed to those who do not commit delinquent acts, then they are more likely to become delinquent. The third important proposition has to do with exposure.
In this research paper I will summarize three important theories of criminality. In criminology, examining why people commit crime is very important, but there is always a debate in how crime should be handled and prevented. The biological theory, focusses on the study of social behavior and structures. The sociological theory, evaluates crime as a social problem, and not as an individual problem. And psychological theory suggest that behavior of crime is the result of individual’s differences in thinking process.
If a student has a greater commitment to school they are less likely to have incidents with criminal behavior, or show less of a desire to associate with peers who commit specific criminal behavior. As a result of using the analysis, risk and protective factors could serve as basis for research in the future. In addition, interventions based on imparting strategies for coping could be developed. There is still much work to be done to fully explain why youths commit crimes, but this study will help gain insight and understanding of the ways that specific factors influence various types of violent and nonviolent delinquency.
Bilton, Bonnet & Jones (2002:386) point out that according to the delinquent subculture theories, external social influences may have significant impacts on human behaviours. Graham (1998:7) identifies some of those external social influences as the ‘risk’ or ‘causal’ factors of crime. They include: poverty, poor parenting, poor education level, generational crime, and constant interaction with delinquent associations. Apparently, the way social structures are organized might be considered crucial in determining whether a society will have the tendency of committing criminal actions or not. As social problems are more likely the cause of most crimes, social intervention would seem to be an appropriate way of preventing it.
This is undertaken by solely examining Strain theory and Rational choice theory. Although individual influences in crimes are of importance; they should only be recognized as an aptitude of crime rather then its cause. For that reason, a critique of these issues promotes a change by the academic community away from discussions over their success towards the development of more unifying theory building in the current economic climate. A theoretical perspective that has been used to explain white-collar crime is rational choice theory (Paternoster and Simpson, 1996; Piquero et al., 2005). Its bases its argument on the idea that people consider their decisions prior to undertaking criminal acts, and then act in their self-interest.
Conclusion The Symbolic Interaction Theory is a theory that can best explain why crime occurs. When someone deviates from the path society had intrically paved, they are caste outside the majority and thus, given the label of criminal. It is through this push outside the group that a person is subjected to either accepting their label as a criminal or must fight their way back into the group through the means of policy implications like rehabilitation programs. Sadly, if the person does not successfully complete treatment, they will remain outside the group and will be forced to abide by their label as a criminal. This theory sums up the way society itself creates criminals therefore making it one of the most significant theories to explain crime in America.
Data has suggested that to some degree crime is inherited, and that genes likely contribute to certain traits that are conducive to crime (Ellis & Walsh, 1997) Gene theory suggest that some genes could evolve that predispose an individual to take advantage of the unselfish cooperative behavior of others (Badcock, 1986) Heart rates were also said to have a bearing on criminal dispositions. There are studies that found lower resting heart rates to be associated with a greater crime rate. There was an additional finding that the prefrontal lobes may not work correctly in the brain of criminally predisposed individuals (Rowe, 2002) Gottfredson and Hirschi (1990) discovered that individual differences in self control predispose some people to criminal activity. These aforementioned facts point to how individual traits have a bearing on the commission of crime. Although there has been acknowledgement that individuals may have a biological predisposition to become criminals; nonetheless, some may still engage in very little criminal activity if they are raised in loving, supportive family environments.
1. Criminology Criminology is the science of studying how laws are made, the breaking of laws, and the social reaction to the breaking of laws. Criminologists research past criminal events to contribute to decrease the crime rates and develop a society that is less vulnerable to criminal acts. There are different theories that have emerged over the years that have helped criminologists to get to solid conclusions on the relation between crime and society. The study of criminology is important because it helps society understand what the crimes are, and how criminals who commit this crimes are punished.
The offender’s choices may not always be rational and may draw on previously established beliefs about their opportunities to commit acts of violence. This theory focuses on the effectiveness of interventions to decide how to best reduce the benefits of crime and increase the cost of criminal action. Rational Choice theory is in the classical school, which is based on the idea that individuals choose to engage in crime (Gosselin, pp. 67-68, 2014). Biological