Research in the criminal justice field is important as it may help identify problem areas and also identify those that need improvement. Also, research may also be conducted to establish policy and principles that can be used as preventive measures. Furthermore, research sets the base for policy making as the implementation provides the opportunity for government agencies to work and operate. According to Garrison, “criminal justice research intends to interpret why crime occurs and in what ways the research could benefit crime reduction” (2009). All in all, criminal justice research has a strong, positive impact on how law enforcement agencies can fight crime and in turn, help reduce the use of financial means, other and provide guidance in doing the job in a correct manner.
The UCR, NIBRS, and the NCVS In the criminal justice field, there has been created a number of methods for measuring crime, and with those different methods come different forms of data. In the United States, there are three methods that are available to be utilized: the Uniform Crime Report (Referred to as the UCR), the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), and the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS). Our government, the United States of America, is knowingly responsible for providing its citizens with factual crime data that can be used to inform them of the effectiveness of current criminological practices. The data provided is collected and analyzed by a number of government agencies, but it is not limited to this, as we often send data to independent contractors to analyze for us. The Uniform Crime Report is the first method that is usually called upon, as it measures official crime data as submitted by law enforcement agencies.
When deterrence fails, criminals need to be identified and held accountable for their actions. Law enforcement enforces many different crimes; some of the most serious crimes are violent crimes. According to the FBI’s Uniform Crime Reporting Program, violent crime is defined by four offenses: murder and non-negligent manslaughter, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault (FBI, 2007). Defeating the threat of violent offenders is important to the safety of society. Many can agree safety is important; however holding offenders accountable varies from state to state.
Incidence of crime is defined as the number of crimes that have happened in a particular area (Rogerson 2004, p. 2). Clarity and accuracy are the essential elements in the measurement. The exact time, place, types of crime, how a crime has happened and the people committed the crime should be defined in order to obtain a reliable and valid data. This process is not only can assist the police officers in crimes investigations. However, it also can reduce the crime effectively in a particular area.
Crime is explained by motivations and special characteristics of offenders. Organized crime research shows that some offenders are quite normal in many respects, though they are involved in serious forms of crime. This broadens the idea that not all crimes are the same. This means that not all offenders have a set of certain characteristics or follow all the same guidelines to classify them as an offender. This is important to know because it expresses the urgent need of awareness that is needed to help prevent this array of risks.
They use an exploratory research approach in order “ to seek an explanation of the causes and methods of inhibiting such criminality” (97). They also focus their research on similarities of these organizations, the problems they create for states, and tactics that would be able to successfully deal with the transnational crime organizations. Ruetschlin and Bangura were able to find some benefits to society from transnational organized crime. However these benefits are still significantly outnumbered by the cons of transnational crime.
The accuracy and reliability of criminal statistics is something that has been of great discussion through criminology for decades. Whilst some believe that crime statistics are a misuse of time and resources, others believe that there is some use for them within the criminological community. The inaccuracies of criminal statistics are highlighted in abundance within academic articles and research, many of which highlight the main source as the dark figure of crime. Many also suggest other inconsistencies within official statistics to be influenced by law enforcement agencies and society. But whilst there is much research to suggest that criminal statistics are unreliable and of no use, there are some that suggest that this may not be entirely
Through use of records, surveys and statistics prevalent levels of data are available in relation to crime. The main sources used to measure crime are the official crime or police statistics and victim and self- report surveys. Crime statistics are influenced by funding and therefore may leave out some areas of crime. Victim surveys may not record the amount of offences committed against one person while self-report surveys show the amount of crime that has already been undetected. When compared this data shows huge gaps between the amount of crime reported and some of the crime committed.
Introduction With the society that most individuals are offered today, the world of crime has been constantly transforming. This can influence the typical individual to question if there are too many laws that one should follow, including the penalties that are to be expected. The word crime can insinuate many thoughts of apprehension, segregation, and security when applying the law in accordance to criminal acts being prosecuted. In order for penalties to apply to a particular individual, law enforcement must first be able to track and identify suspects of various crimes. Numerous approaches can be offered for this process, but profiling is a common tactic that has aided law enforcement in seeking justice for both suspects and victims.
In the article excellence in problem-oriented policing it stated “researchers and practitioners have focused on the evaluation of problems, the importance of solid analysis, the development of pragmatic responses, and the need to strategically engage other resources (Goldstein, 2001, Pg. 3).” The problem-oriented policing have been among discussions regarding the way they respond to crimes and techniques to prevent it. Lastly, the order maintenance model focus more on the nature issues such as vandalism or any types of drug dealing. Their main goal is to reduce crime and maintain order in the community. This is the police who might use aggressive force on serious crimes.