The fear of detection, conviction, and punishment resulting from prosecution forms the core of deterrence theory. Therefore, individuals decide whether or not to commit crimes based by weighing the possibility of punishment from criminal prosecution against their ability to profit from illegal activity. Although deterrence is one of the central objectives of the criminal justice system, there is little consensus as to whether or not prosecutions effectively deter corporate crime. In a study conducted by the American Antitrust Institute, data were collected ... ... middle of paper ... ... is conducted and meeting compliance validates the operational quality of the corporation. 4.0 Conclusion After a case like Enron, it is easy to be pessimistic about the prospects for change that could effectively prevent corporate crime.
The term “Criminology” was introduced in 1885. It is applied specifically to efforts made by governments to reduce crime, enforce the law, and maintain criminal justice. To simplify this definition, it is the effort that people or agencies make to help keep crime rates down (Wikipedia, 2015). Now, when we take the information that criminologists have researched and studies that have been conducted with criminals, then combine that with people who are trying to prevent crime we can make new methods for deterring crimes. Crime around the world can be prevented or at least in some aspects reduced.
The assumption that understanding criminal behaviour is the most important tool we have to combat the incidence of crime has prompted many philosophers, jurists, psychologists, psychiatrists, socialists and others to seek a plausible explanation for the commission of crimes. Their methods are diverse, some employing scientific means and others using empirical evidence to explore why people engage in “deviant” activity. The most convincing of these theories are those which explain criminal behaviour by reference to the individual, such as the classical theory, which views criminal behaviour as being the free and rational choice of the individual. The theory then offers proportionate punishment as a means to discourage people from reoffending or to deter others from acting criminally. Whilst the theory is not without it flaws, it is difficult to disprove such a theory in the absence of establishing the offender was not capable of rational thought at the time of committing the offence.
After reading this paper the reader should have a better understanding on how the Criminal Justice System works and why it is needed help promote a safe environment for our society. In order to understand what crime is we must first look at the definition of what criminal activity is. The term crime comes from a classification of wrongdoing that were established by state or Congress as a felony or misdemeanor, which is committed against a public law. Crime is defined as all deviance involving violating norms, but some norms attract the attention of the authorities. Acts that have been declared illegal by some authority are called crime (Curry, Jiobu, & Schwirian, 1999).
As Joe Arpuio states “getting tough on crime,” the tougher retributive punishments are, may again deter crime. Deterrence- Deterrence is the intention to prevent future crimes from taking place, becoming split into two specific types of deterrence, general and specific. General deterrence is “actions that take place to persuade other persons from committing criminal acts” (Couture, 2014, p. 128). While specific deterrence is “punishments aimed at stopping... ... middle of paper ... ...ause it deals with society as a whole. Yes, general deterrence may use certain individuals as an example for society, but if the punishment for that certain individual is strict enough and is able to deter others from society from committing crime it is doing its job.
1. Criminology Criminology is the science of studying how laws are made, the breaking of laws, and the social reaction to the breaking of laws. Criminologists research past criminal events to contribute to decrease the crime rates and develop a society that is less vulnerable to criminal acts. There are different theories that have emerged over the years that have helped criminologists to get to solid conclusions on the relation between crime and society. The study of criminology is important because it helps society understand what the crimes are, and how criminals who commit this crimes are punished.
Retribution is a method to punish that stresses vengeance or payback for the crime as the suitable goal. Incapacitation is a method to punish that seeks to defend society from criminals by imprisoning or executing them. Finally, rehabilitation is an approach to punish that tries to reform criminals as part of their penalty. Positive deviance discusses to actions well-thought-out deviant inside a given situation, but which are later reinterpreted as suitable. And this can result in a change of the social norms in a culture for the better.
Criminology is the study of why individuals engage or commit crimes and the reasons as to why they behave in certain ways in different situations (Hagan, 2010). Through understanding the reasons or why an individual commits a crime, one can come up with ways to prevent and control crime or rehabilitate criminals. There exist a large number of criminology theories, some link crime to an individual or person; they believe a person weighs the cons and pros and makes a conscious decision on whether to commit or not commit a felony. Others see the society as having a duty to make sure that its members do not engage in criminal acts by providing a secure and safe living place. Some claim that some people have hidden or dormant characteristics that determine their reaction or behavior when confronted or put in particular negative conditions (Akers & Sellers, 2012).
I now know that criminology prefer to highlight the correlations between crimes’ social climates and criminals’ psychological states of mind. While some argues that criminal behavior is a result of individuals’ association with criminal peers, other claims that crime is a reflection of an individual’s genetic disadvantages. I have come to learn that there are no universally agreed formulas on decoding crimes and criminal behaviors. What we have, however, is a manual full of academic opinions and subjective views that have emerged alongside of the development of criminology. At the same time, the volume of conflicting perspectives that I have stumble upon in studying criminology reminded me again that the success of our current assessment models has yet to be determined.
The example above is part of the rational choice theory and the reason is because that particular person weighed the costs and benefits of their illegal action. Rational choice theory is a vision where crime is a functionality of the decision-making process of the criminal in which they weigh the costs and benefits of an illegal act in society (Siegel, 2011). Criminals use the rational choice theory in society when they are trying to avoid any kind of pain and are in a mindset of looking for pleasure. Criminals find the easiest way to have fun and find a ... ... middle of paper ... ...ifferent crime patterns and thought processes of criminals. The reasons can only come from these theories and will help the justice systems become more prepared to react towards different crimes.