For the initial investigation of the proposed approach and better understanding of the processing parameters, the twenty able-bodied subjects will be included because of their intact musculature. Participants will be recruited through flyers, website and digital media postings, and referrals from colleagues, staff, students, and other professionals. All subjects will have to sign a written and informed consent form prior to participating in the experiments carried out at the Florida International University. Prior to obtaining consent, potential subjects will be informed about the, purpose of the research study, procedures to be followed, benefits of the study, risks and discomforts associated with the study procedures and the time commitment.
The purpose of the squat is to train the muscles around the knees and hip joints, as well as to develop strength in the lower back, for execution of basic skills required in many sporting events and activities of daily living. Because a strong and stable knee is extremely important to an athlete or patient’s success, an understanding of knee biomechanics while performing the squat is helpful to therapists, trainers, and athletes alike (11). Because most activities of daily living require the coordinated contraction of several muscle groups at once, and squatting (a multi-joint movement) is one of the few strength training exercises that is able to effectively recruit multiple muscle groups in a single movement, squats are considered one of the most functional and efficient weight-bearing exercises whether an individual’s goals are sport specific or are for an increased quality of life
Mizner, R. L., Kawaguchi, J. K., & Chmielewski, T. L. (2008). Muscle Strength in the Lower Extremity Does Not Predict Postinstruction Improvements in the Landing Patterns of Female Athletes. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 6, 353-361.
ii.) The device must allow the muscles to be worked through there natural range of motion.
(2011), traditional ergometers are stationary (i.e. known as fixed ergometer) that the rower moves respectively to the resistance unit. However, they stated that the dynamic ergometers (i.e. known as slides ergometer) are the best simulation on-water rowing in which all parts of the ergometer moves in response to the motion of the athlete. Additionally, both types of ergometers were used by rowers for training, evaluation and team selection (Shazlin and Sunil, 2015). In recent, the most used rowing ergometer is the Concept II rather than among the existing models (Elliot et al., 2002) which led the market since the development of the II b model in 1986 (Smith and Hopkins, 2012). The similar biomechanics have shown on dynamic ergometry and sculling (i.e. on-water rowing) (Elliot et al., 2002) as notice that shorter drive lengths and higher handle forces during ergometry than sculling (Kleshnev, 2005). Besides, biomechanical analysis shown that the stroke profile in slide rowing differs from stationary rowing as the max and mean forces during slide rowing are lower and stroke frequency is higher at the same work intensity (Larsen and Jensen, 2010). The previous studies observed that the rowers were generated lower stroke forces and higher stroke rates during dynamic than stationary ergometry (Colloud et al., 2006). They reported that significant difference in force curve profiles which is handle and stretcher force during slides ergometer and
Oatis C. (2009) Kinesiology: The Mechanics & Pathomechanics of Human Movement (Second ed.). Glenside, Pennsylvania: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
When performing manual muscle testing for shoulder flexion and abduction, PTA’s typically place their hand at the wrist verses the mid-extremity because placing their hands at the wrist increases the length of the lever thus testing the muscles ability to resist externally applied force overtime and across the bone-joint lever arm system. Shorter lever arms will provide higher testing scores when compared to using longer lever arms, thus changing the point of force application affects the length of the lever arm and therefore the muscle torque.
Strength defined as a component of both health-related and sport-related physical fitness, is the, ‘maximal amount of force a musc...
Pitchers do several overhand throwing which involve fine coordinations of all body segments (MacWilliams, Choi, Perezous, Chao & McFarland, 1996). “Pappas et al. described baseball pitching as a sequential activation of body parts through a link segment beginning with the contralateral foot and progressing through the trunk to the rapidly accelerating upper extremities” (MacWilliams et al., 1996). There is a rise of concern among the sport medicine practitioners for the number of baseball pitchers with elbow injuries appears to be increasing. The baseball pitchers use multi-joint movements, which are joints that rotate due to muscle, gravity, and interaction torques. There has been previous research that suggests that the main risk factor may be due to overuse of the muscles, such that risk of elbow pain correlates with the number of pitches thrown in a game and in a season (Fleisig, Weber, Hassel & Andrews, 2009). Therefore, to minimize future injuries/risks a proper experiment must be done to determine which potential changes in muscle function would be most beneficial for (i.e. muscle torques at different joints and the underlying muscles forces) learning a skilled throwing movement (Jindrich, 2014).
Comparing my results to the average results provided on table #2 on page 2.8 of the biophysical evolution lab manual, my best value for the sit and reach is 31.5cm which is considered average for a male aged 15 to 19 years old. It is in the middle of the average range, therefore my forward flexion is good but not the best for my age group. My average best hip flexion value is 86ﾰ (94ﾰ on left leg and 78ﾰ on right) and compared to the average, it is above by a lot, therefore my hip flexion is excellent on average but my right leg was slightly under average and left a lot above the average values listed on page 2.7 of the lab manual. The flexometer and sit-and-reach are both excellent tools to measure hip flexion but the flexometer gives a better reflection of the range of motion for the hip joint because it provides easy and accurate measurements of the angle of range of motion in which a constant of gravity is used (tool works with gravity and gravity remains constant). For the sit-and-reach test, people may vary in results due to shorter or longer body segments, therefore harder to compare their flexibility to the average. In my case, I have longer legs which may cause a disadvantage as I am further away from the tool and have to reach longer. Someone else could have shorter legs and longer arms and may reach further than me yet still have the same hip flexibility. The goniometer is not a very reliable tool to use as...