Maria de Ventadorn writes in a style common to the trobairitz of her time in the south of France. Meg Bogin’s collection The Women Troubadours will be used to outline general aspects of courtly love. This type of lyric is called a tenson, a common form of performed collaborative song with alternating stanzas (16). In the lyric, courtly love is presented as a game and Lady Maria’s interest is to win. This can be observed in the treatment of her counterpart and her ideas about courtship. The tone of the poem is conversational and pert written in a plain, informal style. Neither voice uses a lot of poetic imagery in any of the verses and the language is considerably colloquial not employing metaphor and ambiguity in terms of the meaning. A question is posed as the introduction and the address is clear; Lady Maria implores Gui D’ussel to engage with her in this dialogue and confronts him with questions regarding the dynamic of lovers. The taunting tone of the dialogue is suggestive of a courting between the two, however, it is not explicit about the nature of the relationship as they do not, on any occasion specify the lady and man in question. The ambiguity that does exist revolves around the authors’ position in the text and whether or not they are debating about courtly love in particular or whether the generality of the “lady” and “man” in question are their potential selves. Even though the speakers are identified as the authors, they can more accurately be described as characters based on themselves. We know that this type of lyric was most likely performed in front of an audience probably set to music. The public’s relationship to such work can be likened with dramatic performance of today such as a musical or a... ... middle of paper ... ... are the “weaker, purer, more virtuous sex” (10), however, in this poem, Lady Maria is the more aggressive, imploring, suggestive and outspoken one. Humility is not her goal here: there is a play on the word “rule” (16) where in Lady Maria is pointing out the hypocrisy in the rules in order to establish a relationship in which she is the one who rules. This alternation of Lady Maria’s impudence and Gui d’Ussel’s sensibility make for an amusing performance no matter whose side the audience is on. The song functions as entertainment rather than a brooding expression of love and concern and subverts stereotypical ideas about a woman’s voice being seeded in humility. Lady Maria wants it both ways and is entitled to her own ideas about courtship since she is in a position of expressing herself through writing while also accepting the role of a subject of adoration.
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...Countess would never have been able to resurrect her spirit and rise up to help foil the Count’s plan. It is thanks to Susanna that the Countess rediscovers herself, and gratitude is owed to the Countess for helping the marriage of Susanna and Figaro to successful transpire. The letter aria is the pinnacle of their friendship, and “the only duet [written by Mozart] that portrays both females in a favorable light.”15 He sought to depict a state of equality between the two, despite social differences, in which they would “be defined by the nobility of their souls rather than their social rank.”16 Here we see the ideals of the Enlightenment shine through, as Mozart gives us a glimpse of a world without class barriers, where two people build a relationship on mutual respect, and judge each other by their actions in relation to their character, not their social station.
Marie de France wrote several short poems, called lais. Many of these such as Equitan, Bisclavret, and Le Fresne focus on love that causes trouble for the characters. In Equitan, the main character falls in love with an Elven queen, a relationship about which he can tell nobody. Bisclavret falls prey to an unworthy wife and his beastly form. Le Fresne’s affair suffers due to her mother’s slanderous words and a lover who is ruled by his men. Marie de France uses both direct and indirect foreshadowing in these lais to imply that misfortune will fall upon the characters and each use works to keep readers intrigued in the story.
She tells the girl to “walk like a lady” (320), “hem a dress when you see the hem coming down”, and “behave in front of boys you don’t know very well” (321), so as not to “become the slut you are so bent on becoming” (320). The repetition of the word “slut” and the multitude of rules that must be obeyed so as not to be perceived as such, indicates that the suppression of sexual desire is a particularly important aspect of being a proper woman in a patriarchal society. The young girl in this poem must deny her sexual desires, a quality intrinsic to human nature, or she will be reprimanded for being a loose woman. These restrictions do not allow her to experience the freedom that her male counterparts
This poem is written with individual equality of each partner. “If ever two were one, then surely we” . The beginning of this poem refers to the Christian theme of marriage. “Two shall become one” is a Biblical reference regarding marriage. This phrase does not suggest a superior partner, it implies oneness and equality. This poem “To My Dear and Loving Husband” first addresses the love of the woman, “If ever man were loved by wife, then thee; / If ever wife was happy in a man, / Compare with me, ye women, if you can” [2-4]. The wife begins by explaining that she was in love with her husband and her love could not be counted as equal or less than any other woman’s. The wife says, “My love is such that rivers cannot quench” . She is stating that her love is stronger than raging rivers and cannot be stopped by these weak forces. The poem then addresses the husband’s love for the wife, “Thy love is such I can no way repay” . This line implies that his love for her is stronger than her love for him. His love is exceedingly more than any others’, more unquenchable than many rivers, and he too, is in love with his partner. This love for one’s wife is not seen in “My Last Duchess.” In “My Last Duchess,” instead of valuing the individual value of his partner the duke objectified his duchess. His Duchess was “too soon made glad, /
Maria possesses individuality, and self-confidence as she tells Sir Toby she is capable of making a wise plan. This tells all young women to believe in themselves, and know that they can accomplish anything. William Shakespeare lets the audience know that Maria does not like others controlling her, and is aware of what she does. By referring to wit, Maria means that women are intelligent. Maria breaks the myth of women not being able to do what a man can do. Hence, not only does Maria portray individuality, but she also conveys important messages that the world can learn from.
One of the main plot lines in this novel is based upon a bet between the Vicomte de Valmont and the Marquise de Merteuil; in short, Valmont wagers that if he is able to seduce the very religious woman, Tourvel, Merteuil will agree to be with him again when he visits Paris. Valmont being both a womanizer and promiscuous takes on this bet and begins his manipulation of Tourvel. At this initial stage, it is important to take into account the values of both
There does not appear to be the real life idea that love is tremendously demanding and that you may have to endure multiple hardships that you may or may not overcome. For a majority of Marie’s lais, the characters seem oblivious to the problems that surround them. In addition, with magic being prevalent, the story loses the factual connection the reader may have with real life. While the magic makes the story interesting, it is hard for a reader to be connected to the stories because they are not relatable in love or ordinary life. Marie is truly a romantic and misses the knowledge that real and true relationships take work. Since magic is not present to assist when difficulties emerge, I believe that in Marie’s lais, she creates more of a fairytale, or a picturesque love. I reason that by highlighting the ideas of love the plots in The Lais of Marie de France, I have shown that while Marie’s lais endure complications in love and overcomes them to live a happily ever after, the whole idea of Marie’s love plots seem unlikely and not relatable to the real life impression of
De Amore is a book stylized in the form of a letter to a fictitious friend, Walter, about the intricacies of love. However, De Amore is really a manual which teaches men how to seduce women. The whole book is written from a man's point of view and mentions the emotional experiences of women only incidentally. This is not to put a negative connotation on Capellanus's work. During this time period, every aspect of life - public and personal - was dominated by the male half of our species. But, this does not change the fact that our author's chief concern was to instruct his reader, a man, in the ways of winning a woman on whom he has set his heart. There are three major, honest ways of winning a woman's response - "a fine physique, manly behavior, and fluency and elegance of speech." (Brittanica). It is intention of De Amore to set out to teach the last.
In the article “Courtly Love: Who Needs It?” by E. Jane Burns, the author establishes what would be considered the quintessential female persona as it appears in medieval literature, particularly in the romance genre. She begins by calling attention to the similarities between the expected mannerisms of women in the structure of courtly love and the modern book The Rules. The text is a self-help guide for women who are looking to attract a husband by employing medieval methods of attraction (Burns 23). It employs outdated strategies to encourage women to become unemotional and disinterested, but also subservient, with anticipation of attaining the unwavering affection of a potential suitor. Thereby perpetuating the well-established “ideology
it was a sin of the bible. It was always a lot easier for women in
A primary objective of modern songs is to present and reflect topics that are significant to today’s society, whether it be moral values or controversial issues. The only relationship described in this song is between the man and his wife. The young man is seen to have somewhat of a relationship issue with his wife, caused mostly by his obsession with wealth. Evidence of this struggle between the two is presented in lines 3, 4 and 27. The verse, “I feel her love and I feel it burn” depicts the young man’s desire to push away from the hustle and bustle of life and spend some more time with his loved one instead. He knows that he is not always there for her and he feels guilty about it, hence her love metaphorically “burning”
Note the Duke tried to depict himself as a “frank” person; one does not do “techniques” in his speech. At this point the poem, the reader may aware of the Duke’s techniques he used in his speech. Duke explained that even though he has the ability to tell how much the Duchess dislikes him, he would not have to explain to her how and why her behavior offend him. In his word, explain his feeling to her is the compromise to his dominance. This reveals the Dutch’s hubris, obsessed with all his power in the hierarchical society other than to share his own feelings with his own wife. Near the end of the poem, the Duke redirects the attention to the upcoming marriage. He told the envoy that he was convinced that his future father-in-law will provide him a generous dowry. However the duke want to be seen as a person who more interested in the future alignment than the money his fiancée would bring in the future. At this point the reader has the sense of the feeling to this young woman’s future well being will not as peaceful as the Duke
She then talks about great men such as Mussolini, Pope, Napoleon and Goethe and how they viewed women. After discovering their opinions, the narrator is bewildered at her findings. These men are praised for their philosophies and wisdom, yet they all view women as being inferior. The narrator is pointing towards the fact that these men in reality are quite ignorant. During th...
“Ave Maria” is a motet, or a short piece of sacred choral music, written by Josquin des Prez in the second half of the 15th century during the Renaissance Era. This motet is a devotional piece to the Virgin Mary which consists of three total parts: a greeting to the Virgin Mary, an overview of the five major events of her life, and the author entreating Mary for mercy at their time of death (Rifkin). The piece exemplifies the ideals and characteristics of Renaissance music through its “syntactic imitation” structure, a rich texture through multiple parts, and chordal harmony (Dickey). Furthermore, the use of lyrical phrases throughout the piece also embodies one of the defining features of the time, vocal music (Kuznetsova). Even from a young age, religion played a major role in the life of Josquin des Prez.
In this technique, understanding is suggested not through conscious evaluations – like those of a chorus aware of everything, a character specially endowed with authority, or the observers who interpret a central referent – but through devices of speech that implicitly reveal a level of awareness beyond the speaker’s own comprehension. By introducing changes of tone, images, allusions, ambiguous words, and variation in sound, or by making a speech from words, images, and symbols repeated or duplicated in other contexts, the dramatist “breaks the barrier of human limitations of his individualized characters.” Through these devices, the dramatist creates authoritative dramatic facts relevant to all the characters. None of these stylistic devices can function alone. They acquire their significance from the general context of the action, which, they in turn try help to elucidate through their own contributions. Each of these stylistic devices works with other devices, of language and structure, in provoking the spectators to view the action as a whole in a certain perspective. This lack of autonomy is especially true of the sound pattern into which the dramatist shapes his words, that is, the pattern produced by variations in stress and pitch, differences in the placement and duration of pauses, the relationships between individual words or lines, the presence or absence of rhyme, and the contrast of one speaking voice with another. While it is possible to isolate and describe this pattern, the resulting description can embody no specific meaning. The sound pattern may have only appropriateness, meaning that the emotion articulated by the content of expressive words determines their arrangement. Nevertheless, in many instances sound devices lead the spectator toward a clearer understanding of the situation presented. Rhyme implies a