Cooper's "Deerslayer": View of the Native Americans
James Fenimore Cooper was born on September 15, 1789 in Burlington, New
Jersey. He was the son of William and Elizabeth (Fenimore) Cooper, the twelfth of thirteen children (Long, p. 9). Cooper is known as one of the first great
American novelists, in many ways because he was the first American writer to gain international followers of his writing. In addition, he was perhaps the first novelist to "demonstrate...that native materials could inspire significant imaginative writing" (p. 13). In addition his writing, specifically The
Deerslayer, present a unique view of the Native American's experiences and situation. Many critics, for example, argue that The Deerslayer presents a moral opinion about what occurred in the lives of the American Indians.
Marius Bewley has said that the book shows moral values throughout the context of it. He says that from the very beginning, this is symbolically made clear. The plot is a platform for the development of moral themes. The first contact the reader has with people in the book is in the passage in which the two hunters find each other. "The calls were in different tones, evidently proceeding from two men who had lost their way, and were searching in different directions for their path" (Cooper, p. 5). Bewley states that this meeting is symbolic of losing one's way morally, and then attempting to find it again through different paths. Says Bewley, "when the two men emerge from the forest into the little clearing we are face to face with... two opposing moral visions of life which are embodied in these two woodsmen" (cited in Long, p. 121).
Critic Donald Davie, however, disagrees. His contention is that the plot is poorly developed. "It does not hang together; has no internal logic; one incident does not rise out of another" (cited in Long, p. 121). But according to Robert Long, Bewley has a better grasp of the meaning and presentation of ideas throughout the book. According to Long, although the plot development may not be "strictly linear," it is still certainly coherent and makes sense. In addition, Long feels that, as Bewley states, the novel is a way in and through which Cooper presents moral ideas about the plight of the Native
Americans (p. 121).
The story of The Deerslayer is simple. It is novel which tells the events which occur in the travels of a frontiersman. His name is Natty, and he is a young man at only twenty years old. Coming from New York of the eighteenth century, he is unprepared in many ways for what he encounters in the frontier.
In this essay, the author
Opines that cooper is known as one of the first great children.
Opines that the reader's contact with people in the book is in a passage in which the passage ends.
Analyzes how long feels that, as bewley states, the novel is a way.
Narrates how he got his nickname - hurry scurry.
Opines that the later actions of both hurry and the deerslayer will be similar.
Analyzes how william p. kelly (1983) states that two men to be seen even more strongly.
Opines that cooper's teaching of a lesson makes it all the more special.
Analyzes how claims the land, though unofficially, in the novel.
Asks hurry if there is a man who calls himself 'hurry'.
Analyzes how they begin to talk about hunting and hunting in the beginning of the book.
Opines that he looks at this in a totally different perspective.
Opines that for their part i account game, a redskin, and frenchman as
Describes his apparent pride, about the fact that in all the land, he has the reputation for.
Opines that avoided is the correct and 'quot;right' view. he sets natty up as a moral character.
Opines that he believes that they are good people.
Narrates how he would mind if a white man named the water.
Opines that the indians, on the other hand, would have ruined the natural beauty of it.
Explains that the indian name for it is ''glimmerglass.
Opines that compelled to keep the redmen's name, for it would be too hard to rob them of.
Opines that value and care for today will be confiscated and fought for by the white men.
Opines that the indians will be allowed to play in the world cup.
Analyzes how the white men fought for the land much more than the black men did.
Opines that hurry is the one who has a racist attitude, believing that the deaths of indians are inevitable.
Describes the feelings of bonding and brotherhood that hold the man in his arms as he dies.
Explains that he respected the land in a way that was not common to most white men.
Describes the events that occur in the travels of a frontiersman, natty.
Analyzes how the voices of the two men calling to one another introduce the idea of a world that relates to the american indians.
Opines that the expression that rarely failed to win upon those who had leisure to examine it, and to yield to the feelings of the reader, would not have influenced his looks.
Analyzes how the king has gone so far away that his claim will never trouble old tom hutter, who has got possession, and is like keeping it as long as his life.
Analyzes how he claims to be the only man who had shed so much blood of animals that had not shed man's blood.
Explains that cooper presents this view in order to show what he feels is the correct way. cooper wants natty.
Analyzes how natty thinks of hurry telling him that it has no name, or, at least, no paleface name.
Analyzes how cooper sets hurry and natty up as a story of good and evil, right and wrong.
For most Americans, their knowledge of Native Americans and their culture of both past and present are based predominantly on outdated labels and stereotypes. Over the past 7 weeks, we have covered several sources that have contributed to the continuous development of the stereotypical images that have unsettled the Native Americans over time. These misleading pictures, novels, Hollywood films, professional sports mascots, and other mediums have misrepresented and alienated the indigenous peoples within in each respective time period regarding the current Euro-American centered culture. In order to empathize with their situation one need to understand how and why these stereotypical images of Native Americans were first created in the first
In this essay, the author
Explains that native americans' knowledge of past and present culture is based on outdated labels and stereotypes. stereotypical images, novels, hollywood films, professional sports mascots, and other mediums have misrepresented and alienated them.
Explains that europeans' first exposure to indians was from some artists' depictions of them through sketches and carvings. however, many interpretations of the natives had them depicted as savages who partake in cannibalism and other animalistic behaviors.
Analyzes how james fenimore cooper's the last of the mohicans has subconsciously influenced its readers with stereotypes of native americans, mainly the idea that the natives are a vanishing race.
Analyzes how edward curtis' self-approved photographs of native americans were influential as it garnered interest for the supposed vanishing native american race at the time.
Explains that native americans don't get a positive and accurate representation in films that feature them. other native tribes are depicted as brutal and savage which negates the positive image they may have established.
Analyzes how michael mann's the last of the mohicans uses kilpatrick’s 4 categories of stereotypes to evaluate the traits the most films featuring native americans tend to use.
Analyzes how the white man who was raised by native americans surpasses their abilities by becoming a better native than the natives themselves.
Analyzes the cliché of having a white man with native american love interest who dies by the end, but there were implications of an interracial romance between the uncas and alice munro.
Analyzes the issue of native american tribal figures as mascots for various sports teams in the united states, and jay rosenstein's documentary in whose honor.
Opines that in order to understand what the native americans are suffering from one need to know how and why these stereotypes came to be and recognize how it has persisted over time.
at the time I read this, I still got much from the reading. Haught, in this book, did the
In this essay, the author
Opines that john f. haught's what is god was the most influential to their understanding of their calling as a pastor.
Analyzes how haught explains what god is and how everyone searches for god in one way or another. he argues that if anyone has ever wondered or searched for these five things, then they cannot claim to be an atheist.
Analyzes how haught compares god to a horizon of our experience. he explains the correlation to depth, future, freedom, beauty, and truth.
Analyzes how haught breaks down depth, future, freedom, beauty, and truth, meaning an abyss that seems bottomless.
Analyzes how haught argues that god is inseparable from the future, especially if one is a christian, and that freedom cannot be controlled by man.
Analyzes how haught explains beauty as the feeling of allowing ourselves to be "carried away by the aesthetic phenomenon." they also explain truth as god.
Opines that haught helped them understand the search for god, and their calling from god. he showed them that it is okay to wonder about god and seek him out.
Explains that their job isn't only to search for god in their personal life, but to motivate others.
Since the beginning of America’s history; the portrayal of Native Americans and their culture has often been misunderstood, and therefore misrepresented by European Americans. Considering, that during early times European Americans held almighty egocentric views of themselves (conviction that one’s own ethnic group, culture, nation is superior simply because you are a part of it” (Early Images of Native Americans: The Origins of the Stereotypes). Often, their collective personal opinions became popular belief. This trend of supreme influence became widely apparent in their reports on Native Americans. Native Americans have been portrayed throughout America’s history in oppressive ways especially through early written accounts, paintings, photographs,
In this essay, the author
Analyzes how the portrayal of native americans and their culture has been misunderstood and misrepresented by european americans.
Explains that christopher columbus' early accounts of native americans became the basis in which many common stereotypes derived.
Explains that early native americans' paintings were constructed solely off of accounts of what the artist had heard about them, popular trends of that time, and a bit of his own imagination.
Analyzes how james fennimore cooper's the last of the mohicans introduced the all american hero, and three types of indians; noble, savage, or vanishing.
Explains that edward curtis was one of the pioneers in capturing "actual" photos of native americans. he added things or manipulated backgrounds to capture what many considered "authentic" native american photos.
Explains that paintings, novels, and photos were used to depict native americans in a negative limelight, but cinema became another popular way to do just that.
Analyzes how hollywood tried to deviate from the tonto speaking savage roles by writing and producing more movies that featured a noble or vanishing indian.
Analyzes how native americans are blatantly disrespected through the use of mascots in sports. in whose honor a native american gives her account on what it was like for her attending university of illinois.
Opines that society has come a long way since the 1400s when christopher columbus accidently discovered the new race. negative connotations are demonstrated both inadvertently and advertentally in our paintings, photos, novels, movies, and sports team mascots.
Explains that james fenimore's the last of the mohicans was published by penguin in 1986.
The history of Native Americans
1. Pre - Columbian history of Native Americans
1.1. The first people in America
According to a majority of scientists, the first Americans arrived in Alaska from Siberia using 1,500 km wide land bridge across the Bering sea, called Beringia. There is also the theory that some of them reached North America traveling along the western coast by boats.
In this essay, the author
Explains that christopher columbus was the first european to come to america, but the vikings reached america about 1000. according to the norse sagas, leif, the son of erik the red, explored the area of canada, and called it vinland.
Explains that the first americans arrived in alaska from siberia using a 1,500 km wide land bridge across the bering sea.
Explains that the first native cultures were known as the mound builders, because of the habit of creating large earthworks for religious, ceremonial and burial purposes.
Narrates how christopher columbus, a sailor born in 1451 in italy, started asking european rulers for financing his expedition to the indies. he won the support of ferdinand and isabella.
Describes how the arawak indians greeted columbus in the bahamas and exchanged goods with him.
Explains the relationship between the settlers and the native americans. the first british colony, jamestown, was established in 1607.
Explains how the settlers moved indians west, destroying villages, and barbarically murdering. the pequot war, led by metacon, took place in 1675 and lasted 14 months.
Explains that the movement to remove all indians from their land to indian territory began in 1865.
Popular culture has shaped our understanding and perception of Native American culture. From Disney to literature has given the picture of the “blood thirsty savage” of the beginning colonialism in the new world to the “Noble Savage,” a trait painted by non-native the West (Landsman and Lewis 184) and this has influenced many non native perceptions. What many outsiders do not see is the struggle Native American have on day to day bases. Each generation of Native American is on a struggle to keep their traditions alive, but to function in school and ultimately graduate.
In this essay, the author
Analyzes how popular culture has shaped our understanding and perception of native american culture. disney and literature have given the picture of the "blood-thirsty savage" of colonialism to "noble savage."
Analyzes how the long history between native american and europeans is a strained and bloody one.
Analyzes how the history of the education through boarding schools causes distrust for the current education system. the one-sided history being instructed to native students brings a message that "their history does not matter."
Explains that the nation's standardized test also leaves native students behind their peers. many questions are "eurocentric and culturally bias" resulting in many students who have grown in a traditional customs.
Explains that many native parents are reluctant for their children to be taught by non native teachers. the experiences through boarding schools have caused generation to have negative thought of formal education.
Explains that many teachers don't want to go to schools on reservations or have high native population due to negative stereotypes. they forget that they interact with the child's parent, and extended family.
Analyzes how anton treuer describes strategizing using native language of the ojibwe to native students that they are able to apply to mathematical concepts.
Explains that native students would have an easier time learning english, but they would also have a change to boost the achievement of native students. revitalization of language helps with preventing of dropout rate.
Opines that language is what brings a culture together and brings unity to the community. having the ability to encourage people to learn and speak their native tongue would revitalize and bring about new speakers.
Explains that the experience of native american tribes and culture was limited during their public school career. christopher columbus was the reason native americans were called indians.
Explains that thanksgiving was always told through the pilgrims' point of view; coming on the mayflower and having a harsh thanksgiving. their second-grad class acted out the play.
Explains that the north shore of minnesota and the luis and clark trail made native history realistic compared to the small excerpts that were in books or movies. the presentations at forts and special sites spoke of the collectiveness between the groups.
Narrates how they learned the truth about the first thanksgiving, which was not a large jubilant occasion depicted in the text books.
Explains that public school history is taught through the eyes of european explorers and then settlers of the united states. the louisiana purchase was always talked about the great expansion; it was also an invasion of native people.
Analyzes how the harsh treatment of american natives, such as the trail of tears or little big horn, is a taboo subject that many do not want to talk about out of guilt.
Explains that native american students would clearly see how assimilation works because most of the history taught in school is the white european, fallowing close to the first settlers, founding fathers, civil wars and the world wars.
Opines that native students get the illusion that the main stream culture doesn't care about their history or the history of any other groups unless they helped the united states as a whole to form.
Explains that learning native american history helps understand culture and distrust they have with the united states government.
Opines that providing books for students is an important step as a librarian. it instills an interest in students to do their own research.
Opines that they cannot trust test books unless they have more than one perspective. the treaties need to be exposed and the hard conditions and pressure that native people had to go through must be taught.
Analyzes how minnesota became the state of minnesota after the dakotas and ojibwes became minnesota. mike mulcahy interviewed mary l. wingerd on minnesota public radio.
Presents landsman, julie g., and chance w. lewis. white teachers/ diverse classrooms. sterling: stylus, 2011.
For the better part of American history, the Indians have been viewed and portrayed as dimwitted, helpless victims that aimlessly stood by while the Europeans conquered their land, but this view has recently come under fire and has been overturned, as it was determined to be misleading and inaccurate. Two historians that have questioned the legitimacy of past beliefs regarding the Indians are Charles Mann and James Axtell. Each has made it plainly clear in their articles that the actions of Indians should no longer be treated as useless footnotes on the pages of history. While their articles are on seemingly different subjects, their views and beliefs on the importance of Indians in American history are incontrovertibly the same as both articles showcase the crucial role Indians played in Colonial America.
In this essay, the author
Analyzes how two historians, charles mann and james axtell, have questioned the legitimacy of past beliefs regarding the indians.
Analyzes how charles mann's article, "native intelligence: squanto and the pilgrims," discusses the motives behind the indians' actions and their overall significance in their lives.
Analyzes how james axtell's article, "colonial america without the indians," focuses on the psychological impact that they had on american history.
Analyzes how both the articles are accurate in their descriptions and right in the fact that indians are more than just passive victims.
Throughout our country’s history there have been several groups who have fared less that great. Every minority group was treated unfairly, Indians were uprooted and had no control, I can’t imagine for a second being a soldier in combat, women struggled for basic rights, and many people fell victim to the changing ways of our economy, losing their jobs and fighting to survive. It seems wrong to pick one group over another, as if to say some people who were treated horribly or who faced mounting obstacles didn’t actually have it as bad as another group. But throughout all the years we’ve studied, one group that stood out to me who were dealt a horrible fate were Native Americans living in the west during the 19th century. When Americans began to expand westward, Indians unwillingly had their lives flipped upside down and changed drastically. After years of displacement, they were being forced to live in certain areas and follow certain rules, or risk their lives.
In this essay, the author
Describes the deplorable conditions of the indian reservation, including poverty, starvation, armed confinement, and forced assimilation.
Opines that the treatment of indians throughout these times was horrific. they were uprooted from their homes and lives, forced around smaller and smaller amounts of land by americans.
Explains roark, james l., michael p. johnson, patricia c. cohen, sarah stage, and susan m. hartmann. the american promise: a history of the united states.
Analyzes how native americans were dealt a horrible fate when americans began to expand westward. they were forced to live in certain areas and follow certain rules.
Explains how the us forced indians to abandon their culture in favor of white americans. indian schools were established to keep children from following traditional tribal values.
“ If my life be spared, nothing shall stop from visiting every nations of indians on the Continent of North America” Is what George Catlin said when he started his journey to paint Native Americans all over the country. This painting is known as Há-tchoo-túc-knee, Snapping Turtle, a Half-breed, painted in 1834. The portrait depicts a choctaw Native, wearing his traditional clothing. He wears a feather on his head, which represents his status in his tribe, he also wears a satchel of some sort to carry the items he needs to use. His attire consists of a white shirt and a jacket over it with a Choctaw design, the strap also has splatters of paint that looked to be finger painted. If viewed closely, you can see his boots have a similar color scheme
In this essay, the author
Describes how george catlin began painting natives around the newly settled lands. the portrait depicts a choctaw native, wearing traditional clothing and satchels.