Mill holds an empiricist theory while Kant holds a rationalist theory. Kant grounds morality in forms that he believes, are necessary to free and rational practical judgment, namely his deontological ethics. Mill?s utilitarian theory is a form of consequentialism because the rightness or wrongness of an act is determined by the consequences. Thus, deontologicalism and consequentialism are the main criticisms for both these theories. Kant?s ethics of pure duty is the basis for his categorical imperative, which provides the basis for his universalist duty based theory.
Kant’s deontological ethics is grounded on concepts of duty, the categorical imperative, and good will. Similarly, Arendt utilizes Kant’s categorical imperative and idea of duty to share her account of Adolf Eichmann’s trial. She recognizes that even though Eichmann attempted to live according to a Kantian definition of duty, his behavior did not fit Kant’s moral precepts. Mill, contrastingly, holds a teleological philosophy and uses the concept of consequentialism and utilitarianism to argue against Kant’s morality. In any case, the three philosophers bring thoughtful ethical philosophical concepts which provide new ways to analyze moral conflicts.
The Mandate of Heaven Based on the Teachings of Confucius The Chinese concept of the "Mandate of Heaven," was based on the teachings of Confucius and further enhanced a century later by a man named Mencius. Mencius added to the Confucian teachings by addressing human nature and the right to govern. Previously, China had been ruled by two divergent schools of thought. One was "selfish" religion in how you could obtain happiness in an unsettled world by living a simple life in harmony with nature. Confucius taught that the improvement of society was the responsibility of the rules, and that the quality of government depended on the ruler's moral character.
For those individuals that choose to look into the philosophy of Confucius, Confucianism recognizes that the quest for virtue is ordinary and providential. However, in this quest of moral aptness Confucius tried to offer other people the fervent self love that he had greatly embodied. To actually make oneself as perfect as possible was the central concern of life. Al... ... middle of paper ... ...ferences Richard, O. (1998) Eastern Philosophy.
From these to achieve the Jen. Confucius had one overwhelming message: if we are to achieve a state of orderliness and peace, we need to return to traditional values of virtue. These values are based entirely on one concept: Jen, which is best, translated as "humaneness." This humaneness is a relatively strange concept to Western people, because it is not primarily a practicable virtue. The rules of propriety offered a code of accepted behaviour that demonstrated to themselves and others tha... ... middle of paper ... ...ragement of personality development will never be forget.
Born in 551 BCE in the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, Confucius himself absorbed the teachings of Mahavira and the Buddha (Confucianism 1, pg. 2) He had a set of virtues that he believed a functioning society should stand by such as benevolence, love and rites. Confucius wanted China to return to the old days when people were loyal to their rulers and rulers were polite and caring towards their people. He believed rulers s... ... middle of paper ... ...eed to educate ourselves through ancient virtues and treat others the way we want to be treated. Laozi on the other hand did not disagree with this view however he thought that it was not the most important thing to focus on.
Unlike Buddha, however, he believed “Let the ruler be a ruler, the subject a subject, the father a father, the son a son.” In these quotes, the difference in how Buddha wants to break the cycle of power while still in the cast system while Confucius expects and demands the limitation of your station to be harmonious is shown. Both teachers agreed that respect, obedience, benevolence, high morals led to a harmonious society where everyone can live in peace with one
Humanism focuses on human values and real-life concerns, as opposed to divine and supernatural intervention. Confucianism is the practice of virtue. 1 One main virtue of Confucianism is ren. Ren is “innate goodness and benevolence.” 2 Confucius regarded that a person who is devoted to ren is “not motivated by personal profit but what is moral.” 3 Strong relationships are central to Confucianism. One of the greatest virtues is the Filial piety.
Confucius suggests that righteousness should be spontaneous within our character rather than being a forced objective. We must act autonomously. One of the most important aspects of ancient Chinese Confucianism is a sense of duty and responsibility that can lead to greater happiness. The ideal behaviors, manners, and interests of the heart should be major agents in living our lives. These characteristics can be applied when worshipping ancestors.