The objectives of this essay are to discuss key elements of qualitative and quantitative research designs, including the distinction between them. The distinction between these two research designs will also be compared with scientific and non-scientific approaches. Empirical examples illustrating the usefulness of the two designs are also given. This essay will focus on the key characteristics on aspects of data being used and its collection techniques, how it’s used and analysed as discussed by Popper (1989), Ragin (2000), Flyvbjerg (20010, Janesick (2000), De Vaus (2001), Denzin (2000) and Greenstein, Roberts and Sitas (2003). Discussion Although the key elements of these two types of research design are essentially identical, there are some notable differences in terms of how data is collected and analysed.
Nonetheless, this essay starts by considering the nature of research as well as the dimensions that guide the choices one makes about research methods. It concludes by placing special attention on the issues of reliability, validity and interobserver agreement in qualitative and quantitative research. 1. The nature of research Research is not merely a process of collecting information, but research is spiral, meaning that it starts with the statement of a problem, which leads to research question, which ultimately leads to a solution of the problem (Brynard et al, 2014:4). Furthermore, some have understood research as the transferring of facts from one place to another, but the nature of research extend to describing the goal, formulating a theoretical statement, considering the availability of relevant information as well as gathering data (Brynard et al, 2014:4-5).
The systematic approach concerning overview and the formulation of a theory is also research (Kothari, 2004). Therefore, the objective in this chapter is to indicate how the data would be collected and analysed. The process and methodology of research used to collect the data for this dissertation will be explained in detail in this chapter. 3.2 TYPES OF RESEARCH Research is a process for collecting, analysing and interpreting information to answer the questions. According to Muaz (2013), there are many ways to classify research designs, but sometimes the distinction is simulated and other times different designs are combined.
A literature review, which included document analysis, was used to answer sub-questions one, two and three. A model building approach was suggested to answer sub-question four. In addition, the study uses a case study as a proof-of-concept. The use of a case study is a qualitative empirical study to strengthen the research validity. Since the research methods directly responding to the research questions (Literature review and Model building) make use of textual data, we classified this study as a qualitative study.
CQR incorporates the elements from phenomenological approach, grounded theory as well as comprehensive process analysis. The consensual qualitative research has a number of essential components. Firstly, it includes the implication of the open-ended questions in the semi-structured techniques of data collection, which allow the consistent data 's collection across the individuals as well as in-depth examination of their experiences (Hill, 2012). Secondly, it involves several judges throughout the process of analysis of data, in order to foster numerous perspectives. Third is the consensus for arrival at judgments concerning the data 's meaning that sets aside the researchers ' biases (Hill, 2012).
This will be followed by making use of more specific critical appraisal tools depending on whether the study is a survey, a cohort, or a randomised control trial. The following questions should be considered as the essentials of appraising an article: What are the results? Are they significant? Are the results valid? How was the research done?
While the question may be asked as to whether a mixed methods research is possible in light of the two different paradigms, a researcher could resolve the issue through praxis, which Cameron sees as an important part of the mixed methods research. This debate over the ability to carry out such research process can be resolved by praxis, which Cameron describes as the mixed methods researcher becoming “knowledgeable, informed and familiar with the growing body of literature that forms mixed methods as a third methodological movement” (p. 102). Besides, not only must the researcher understand the discipline, but must also be familiar with the methodological and data integration in mixed methods research (Cameron, 2011, p. 102). In other words, debate over the practicality of mixed methods research can be addressed with the researcher recognizing the choices that are available to using mixed methods, and this is possible when mixed methods researchers become knowledgeable in both qualitative and quantitative research methods (Cameron, 2011, p. 104). The pragmatist approach in the research design and implementation phases allows for asking which techniques and procedures are best for the research problem.
In this chapter, discussion on what is research, research design, population, sampling strategy, sampling methods, sample size will be made. Moreover, great of emphasis will be given to data collection instruments, pilot study and data analysis. At the end a small conclusion will be stated. 3.1.1 Research Research is a systematic inquiry that investigates hypotheses, propose new interpretations of data or texts, and poses new queries for future research to explore. It is also a systematic inquiry to define, analyse, forecast and manage the observed phenomenon.
PROBLEM STATEMENT: The problem statement is a concise description of the problem the research intends to address. It defines and presents the issue for the research in order to frame specific questions. It also provides the context for why the research is necessary and potentially valuable to the discipline.... ... middle of paper ... ...clude making suggestions for improvement and speculating on future directions of research. REFERENCES/BIBLIOGRAPHY: References are a list of works cited within the text of the research and usually compiled at the end of the research report. References present the reader with the opportunity to look up information and read more about the research.
(Creswell, 2014) recommends presenting information about the steps involved in analyzing data. He further recommends to present them as a series as steps so that the reader can see how one step leads to another. In this paper, the qualitative design chart will be listed out in a similar easy to follow chart. Qualitative Design Chart There are several ways to prepare research data for discussion with your dissertation team, coach and review panel. Qualitative data are commonly used as a means to gather information on the informant’s participation and satisfaction.