Madison was consistently worried about the abuse of power he attributed the the natural states of governing bodies. Thus when Madison perceived the huge amount of power held by bondholders over a federal government that also had great power, Madison was repelled. Holton argues that the Framers formulated a constitution that appeased both the bondholders and allowed for the reduction in taxes paid. Holton cites evidence on how much bondholders actually gained from the Funding Bill. For example, he states “that by 1792 four out of five dollars collected by the federal government was disbursed to bondholders” (Holton 266).
Nevertheless, many eligible black citizens were prevented from voting; especially in the Southern states of America. Long-standing Southern congressmen exploited their authority to halt legislation that would help blacks. The power of the state governments allowed the continuation of white supremacy and discrimination; the state governments controlled education, transportation and law enforcement. As a result, enfranchisement did not bring greater equality to the black community in America. However, external events such as the two World Wars and the Great Depression encouraged greater equality between blacks and whites.
The party dominated Congress and most state governments outside of New England. Upon taking office Jefferson set out to reduce the national debt. Jefferson was unhappy with the national debt that he felt was a legacy of Federalists like Hamilton and decided to shift from those policies. Hamilton believed that if the government borrowed from the rich citizens, those citizens would have conferred interest in the country’s growth. Jefferson as a non- federalist believed that Hamilton’s national bank was unconstitutional and decided to abandon that policy, trim the federalist budget, and cut taxes.
The Constitution gave Congress no specific authorization to issue charters of incorporation ·Unless Congress adhered to a strict interpretation of the Constitution, critics argue, the central government might oppress the states and trample individual liberties, just as Parliament had done to the colonies ·The president accepted Hamilton’s cogent argument for a loose interpretation of the Constitution ·Tariffs doubly injured the majority of citizens, first by imposing heavy import taxes that were passed on to consumers and then by reducing the incentive for American manufacturers to produce goods at a lower cost than imports HAMILTON’S LEGACY ·Despite the Federalists’ effort to associate themselves with the Constitution they actually favored a “consolidated” (Centralized) national government instead of a truly federal system with substantial powers left to the states ·Resentment ran high among those who felt that the government appeared to be rewarding special interests ·Southern reaction to Hamilton’s program was overwhelmingly negative ·The Band of the United States had few southern stockholders and it allocated very little capital for loans there THE WHISKY REBELLION ·Hamilton’s financial program not only sparked an angry political debate in Congress but also helped ignite a civil insurrection called the Whiskey Rebellion ·Hamilton had recommended an excise tax on domestically produced whiskey. He insisted that his proposal would distribute the expense of financing the national debt evenly across the United States ·The law furthermore specified that all trials concerning tax evasion be conducted in federal courts
The Continental Congress controlled public affairs, but the Articles of Confederation neglected to grant the Congress power to enforce laws or unify the States. Under the Articles, the United States lacked a solid monetary system to ensure that taxes would be paid and to protect commerce, both nationally and foreign trade. Also, without leading national figure, the strong unity America gained during the Revolutionary War began to diminish along with the nations overall strength. Being that Congress had only the power to recommend actions to the states, the Articles were incompetent. Law and recommendations could not be further enforced by Congress.
Ralph Ellison in his novel titled Invisible Man discusses the struggles an African American man faces in his identity due to the racial prejudice he is subjected to in American society. In fact the novel was published in 1952, which was a time period where African Americans possessed little rights. Due to the little rights African Americans possessed in American society, they were an easy target for the white community to denigrate and discriminate. The white community humiliated, mortified and physically abused African Americans which led the black community to pass through society as “unknown”. In Invisible Man, Ellison depicts racial labels as a barrier to an individual’s identity.
Later on, however, the Supreme Court decided that several of Roosevelt’s laws were unconstitutional and they were subsequently vetoed. Moreover, after Roosevelt’s victory in the 1936 election, Roosevelt grew so confident that he felt he could replace members of the Supreme Court with people chosen by himself. However, this did no go down well with the American public and as a result many people began to oppose Roosevelt and his policies. Secondly, the New Deal meant that the rich were taxed more in order to pay for the schemes to help the poor. Many business leaders also opposed Roosevelt’s support for trade unions and employee rights.
With programs challenging economic, social, and political standards, the New Deal imposed both radical and conservative ideals into the American society causing Franklin D. Roosevelt to leave his lasting stamp and legacy on all presidents and generations to come. Because the economy was unstable, Franklin Roosevelt imposed many programs to boost the economy both helping and hindering American citizens through banking and financial reformation with government regulation. After declaring the “bank holiday,” Roosevelt created the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) in order to put confidence back in the citizens and their ability to trust banks to keep their money. By also separating commercial banks from investment banks, the government was trying to keep the flow of money uniform. This idea is radical in form because of the new government imposed restrictions, and conservatives may argue this movement shows signs of socialism.
There were three of the weaknesses that come to mind, the first was it had the failure to raise taxes because the war had them in serious debt and with the enormous debt they could not find creditors, there was a need for everyone to be in agreement to make changes which helped them to open their own national bank so that debt could be consolidated, and over international trade no one had any authority because each state was had its own money, taxes, and its own economy with rising
But the articles denied Congress the power to collect taxes, regulate interstate commerce and enforce laws. Because of this, the central government had to request donations from the states to finance its operations and raise armed forces. The states attempted to limit the power of the national government because they feared that it would become a monarchy. In an effort to limit the power of the national government, Congress created one without enough power to govern effectively, which led to serious national and international problems. One of the main weaknesses under the Articles of Confederation was its incapability to regulate trade and levy taxes.