Constructing and Reconstructing

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1. Woody Holton reveals the motives of the Founding Fathers depend widely on individual judgment of the terms under the Articles of Confederation. Holton claims that historians excessively rely on sources by the Federalist which reveals a prejudiced Federalist view (Hollitz, 110). Woody Holton uses the writings of James Madison and Alexander Hamilton to expose the Founding Fathers deeper motives in writing the Constitution. The Founding Fathers were frustrated because state legislatures had been given in to popular demands to reduce taxes and increase the money supply (for relief from the recession). While citizens were behind on their taxes; states were unable to pay interest on bonds, which crippled the government operations (Hollitz, 91). The idea of Hamilton claiming that states suffered from an “extreme democracy”, the Founding Fathers establish a central government that was less responsive to the will of the popular support (Hollitz, 94). The Founding Fathers, Holton says, mistrusted the abilities of average citizens who made up much of America’s voting population, and believed that power should be left to the elites (Hollitz, 94). However, the “framers” also recognized that the Constitution did not address ordinary citizen’s concern, and it would need to be ratified by the 13 states. As Woody Holton explains, the Founding Fathers felt that the uneducated citizens had “driven the country toward economic recession”, proving that they do not “possessed the ability to govern themselves” (Hollitz, 94). Also, the Confederation demonstrates the dangers of democracy showing that common people should not have control over their government.

2. From Federalist No. 10, James Madison explains that a republic is a government i...

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...litz, 306). African Americans found themselves separated from white society and segregated by class. Blacks were often educated in segregated schools and churches, punished in segregated prisons, nursed in segregated hospitals, and buried in segregated cemeteries (Hollitz, 306). African Americans were segregated and treated with inequality especially in their public life. African Americans in free states faced barriers with job opportunities and were limited to the protection of life, liberty, and property (Hollitz, 306). Republican Party refused to address social equality for African Americans and claims to be “white man’s party” and do not accept black equality. Woodward and Foner conclude Reconstruction laws proved the failure in American race policy for earlier generations and betrayed the hopes that African Americans had invested in the new governments.
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