Condition of the heart. Heart disease continues to be one of the leading causes of death in the United States, and because of this, a variety of conditions tend to occur over time. One of these conditions is atrial fibrillation that, according to the American heart association, “an estimated two million Americans have an irregular heartbeat” (MNN, 2005). It can be seen at times in apparently healthy people, but generally happens in persons older than 65 years of age, and if they are younger than 65 years old, they may suffer conditions such as hypertension, or coronary heart disease. Atrial fibrillation is “a common heart rhythm problem” (CNN,2005).
Every 34 seconds someone has a heart attack and each minute someone dies from a heart disease-related event. There are approximately 715,000 heart attacks and 600,000 deaths each year due to heart disease in the United States. Although the frequency of CAD is similar in both black and white populations, the death rate from CAD is greater for blacks than for whites. In 2009 African Americans were 30% more likely to die from a heart disease than non-Hispanic white men. CABG is the most common type of open-heart surgery in the United States, with more than 500,000 surgeries performed each year.
Primary physical manifestations are rare when it comes to sarcoidosis, therefore, the ability of doctors to detect and diagnose it is an ongoing problem. Prognosis of sarcoidosis can range from fatality to it clearing up on its own within a few months (Lagana, Parwani & Nichols, 2010). Sarcoidosis is an autoimmune disease, therefore, the presence of an abnormal immune response to an individual’s own tissue occurs in the pathology of this disease (Culver, 2011). Increased macrophages, CD4 cells, and helper T lymphocytes found in an individual’s blood make them more prone to this disease (Page, 2008). It is primarily these cells that end up clumping together and forming small lumps called granulomas in patients with sarcoidosis.
Coronary heart disease is the most common type of heart disease, killing more than 385,000 people annually. Every year about 715,000 Americans have a heart attack. Of these, 525,000 are a first heart attack and 190,000 happen in people who have already had a heart attack. Coronary heart disease alone costs the United States $108.9 billion each year. This total includes the cost of health care services, medications, and lost productivity.
Currently, about five million Americans are diagnosed with this disease. Often times, it is in elders who begin to show signs around the age of sixty. Approximately 500,000 people each year die due to Alzheimer’s. According to researchers, one in three elders dies with Alzheimer’s disease. Furthermore, women have a greater chance of developing this disease because women live longer and lose function in the mitochondria.
Heart failure is a major clinical, social and economic problem in the United Kingdom according to the Department of Health [DH] (2013).The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence [NICE] (2010) reported that about 900,000 people suffer from heart failure in the United Kingdom. The National Institute for Cardiovascular Outcomes Research [NICOR] (2011) conducted a national audit which found that one in every 20 people over the age of 65 is diagnosed with heart failure which demonstrates that it mainly affects the elderly. As a leading cause of mortality, heart failure contributes to more than 6,000 deaths each year (NICOR, 2011). Newly diagnosed cases of heart failure have a 40% risk of dying within a year (NICOR, 2011). Despite advances in therapy, mortality is still high and only half of patients are alive five years after being diagnosed with heart failure (NICE, 2010).
Myocardial Infarction The leading cause of death in males and females alike in America is coronary heart disease. Myocardial infarction, more commonly known as a heart attack, specifically effects a significant number of individuals. It claims a massive number of lives every day and year. “About 790,000 people in the US have heart attacks each year. Of those, about 114,000 will die” (American Heart Association, 2017).
Of these, 610,000 are a first heart attack victim. 325,000 happen in people who have already had a heart attack. Also coronary heart disease alone costs the United States $108.9 billion each year. This total includes the cost of health care services, medications, and loss of productivity. Deaths of heart disease in the United States back in 2008 killed about 24.5% of African Americans.
Alzheimer’s disease is also the sixth leading cause of death in North America. Furthermore, it is the only leading cause of death that is still increasing in prevalence. Not only fatal, Alzheimer’s is also severely crippling for all the friends and family that are affected by the patient. The memory loss and dementia that is directly linked to Alzheimer’s disease can cause the patient to forget the identity of their loved ones. For the people that have known the patient for many years, this can be very devastating.
Antiarrhythmic drugs, implantable defibrillators, and pacemakers are other treatments used for dilated cardiomyopathy patients. Anticoagulants are also an important treatment for dilated cardiomyopathy patients due to the increased risk of developing thrombus from poor systolic function, atrial fibrillation, and poor circulatory flow. Cardiac transplantation is another treatment option but heart donors are very limited (Lily). Dilated cardiomyopathy accounts for approximately 15% of heart failure cases in the under 75s (“Chronic Heart Failure”). Patients with Dilated cardiomyopathy are usually unaware of the disease until they experience the signs and symptoms of heart failure or they develop an arrhythmia.