Blood pressure and heart rate are carefully monitored and managed accordingly when deranged. Fluids are maintained at pre-calculated requirements and resuscitation with crystalloids and/or colloids is done when needed. Moreover, blood products, such as red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma and platelets, are always readily available should they become necessary.
Tetralogy of Fallow is a surgically, treatable disease characterized by all or a combination of at least four congenital birth defects. It accounts for 10% of all congenital heart defects that modify the formation of the heart. It also alters the way blood flows through the heart. Tetralogy of Fallow is usually diagnosed at birth or infancy and with surgery a child can live a relatively normal life. The prefix tetra means four and the term fallot is named after a French doctor who first discovered the disease in the 1800’s. Appropriately named after the discovery, Tetralogy of Fallow came about because of the four heart defects observed. One major complication that manifest from Tetralogy of Fallow is a lack of oxygen flowing out of the heart and into the rest of the body. The subsequent problem that this causes is poor oxygen transport leading to cyanosis or blue tinged skin. An infant may be acutely cyanotic at birth or may have cyanosis that gets progressively worse over the first year of life.
Emphysema is a chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder that is characterized by destructive changes in the alveolar walls and irreversible enlargement of alveolar air spaces. This disorder causes loss of elasticity in the walls of the alveolar walls, which results in the walls stretching and after an amount of time eventually breaking. Once damage to the walls occurs, the air spaces are unable to carry out the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Due to the disruption in the breakage and exchange process and inability to carry out duty, the remaining alveoli that is working correctly becomes overinflated and eventually makes exhaling difficult. Smokers put themselves at risk because they have genetic predisposition along with those that have
attached to ventilatior, feeding tube, foley catheter, and rectal tube while he was not even able to move his hand. One week later he was my patient on the fisrt night
Mr. Yu was then transferred to the assigned operating room. Non-invasive blood pressure monitoring, 3 leads electrocardiogram and pulse oximeter were applied to him. Forced-air warming device was given. Large-pore intravenous assess was inserted by anaesthetist. Time-out procedure was performed concurrently with surgeon, anaesthetist and theatre nurse. Right patient, right procedure, right operative site and marking, allergy status and correct prophylactic antibiotic were confirmed by all involved parties. General anaesthesia was started. Prophylactic intravenous Cefazolin 1g was administered as prescribed(30minutes prior incision). Mr. Yu was positioned left lateral for surgical assess. 91
Pulmonary laceration which Shiv Das has been diagnosed with is commonly caused by penetrating trauma but may also result from forces involved in blunt trauma such as shear stress. A cavity filled with blood, air, or both can form. The injury is diagnosed when collections of air or fluid are found on a CT scan of the chest. Surgery may be required to stitch the laceration, to drain blood, or even to remove injured parts of the lung. The injury commonly heals quickly with few problems if it is given proper treatment; however it may be associated with scarring of the lung or other complications. A pulmonary laceration can cause air to leak out of the lacerated lung and into the pleural space, if the laceration goes through to it. In the case
Breast: No axillary lymph nodule enlargement, lumps, mass, or nipple discharge noted. Chest/Lungs: CTA in all fields without adventitious sound, chest movement symmetrical nonlabored breathing. Denies chest discomfort on palpation.
Examination revealed an oxygen saturation of 95% and oropharyngeal inspection was unremarkable. Chest auscultation revealed prolonged expiratory phase of breathing, but no actual wheeze. Two heart sounds were audible with nil else and JVP was not elevated.
Examination revealed on oxygen saturation of 97% and oropharyngeal inspection was unremarkable. Chest auscultation was clear and two heart sounds were audible with nil else.