One such cases, that of Engin Raghip of the so-called ‘Tottenham three’ will be discussed in the context of admissibility of psychological evidence in order to demonstrate how the judiciary has increasingly come to accept the psychological notion that most people, under certain circumstances, are susceptible to making false confessions. In order to better understand why people confess to crimes they have not committed, Kassin an... ... middle of paper ... ...expert testimony in assessing the reliability of disputed confessions. The reason people make false confessions is typically due to a combination of factors such as psychological vulnerabilities, nature of the custodial confinement and the police interviewing tactics. Standardized psychological tests have been devised in order to assess personality factors such as suggestibility and compliance that render some people more vulnerable than others but these should never bee looked at in isolation. Studies indicate that reported cases are only the ‘tip of the iceberg’.
This mental state allows police officers to give misleading information, which may imply that the suspect did commit the crime and does not remember the incident. Mental retardation or suspects with low intelligence quotients (IQ) are easily manipulated by police comments and interrogation tactics. Those suspects usually do not understand the law or the consequences of a confession. They may want to please the police officer by being accommodating or agreeable. They may just wa... ... middle of paper ... ...p;The power of innocence.
One of the main factors in wrongful convictions, tunnel vision, has been recognized by psychologist as a human tendency to quickly convict a suspect so that society feels safe. Although tunnel vision is seen as a natural instinct it can convict innocent individuals and weaken the criminal justice system . Jerome Frank, a judge in the United States Circuit Court of Appeals explored the causes of wrongful convictions and noted that in 36 cases tunnel vision was a significant factor in the conviction of innocent individuals. As demonstrated, tunnel vision is a prevalent factor and may affect cases resulting in judges and juries convicting wrong suspects. However, the human tendency towards tunnel vision is a distinctive feature of an individuals psychological characteristics.
Because of this, research has been done to get to explain why and how false confessions occur. There are several variables that contributed to falsely confessing to a crime. First, the type of individual confessing has to be examined. Why do some individuals feel that the easiest way to remove themselves from a situation is to falsely confess? According to Larmour at el.
Section One: False Confessions Introduction The criminal justice system identifies a false confession as a written or oral statement in which an individual falsely admits to being guilty of a crime. In recent years, several cases have surfaced in which an innocent individual had falsely confessed to a crime (Frumkin & Lamendola, 2009). The consequences of these false confessions often result in innocent people being convicted of crimes that they have not committed (Schell, 2011). The case to be explored within this paper is the wrongful conviction of George Allen Jr., which will be discussed later on. False confessions can be encouraged through coercion, mental disorder, or incompetency of the accused.
Criminal profiling is a method that is used to investigate crimes by using validity and analysis of the crime and the criminal. In regards to the validity, benefits, and liabilities of criminal profiling Bartol & Bartol (2012) state that this is a method used to understand the individuals personality traits, behavioral tends, and the characteristics of an individual who commit the crimes. In regards to validity with criminal profiling is that there is room to make an error. As Bartol & Bartol (2012) mentions in the chapter there is a greater chance of an error depending on the key demographics of the subject they are trying to profile because it can cause a bias opinion when in fact the individual may not even be a race or gender based on what they have analyzed. Another aspect of validity which can be an issue would be the assumption or feeling that a specific type of personality or disorder played a role in the crime which is being analyzed.
Doctors sometimes misinterpret injuries and causes of death and this can really alter a case's outcome significantly. Finally, witnesses may report false sightings, or report something that they thought they heard but misinterpreted it entirely. More laws should be put into place to protect the innocent suspects, and to insure that nobody goes to prison that really does not deserve it and more citizens should be trained to accurately give a description of a suspect to decrease the wrongful conviction rate. It is understandable why a criminal would lie about committing a crime which they did commit to get out of trouble and stay out of jail. In majority of prisons worldwide, 90% of convicted criminals claim innocence.
They work to find evidence and reasons to exonerate the innocent. Good things can come from the public being informed about dire issues such as wrongful convictions. When people hear about situations like these they look to volunteer. Also the commissions are a great way to focus on gathering ev... ... middle of paper ... ...place so that wrongful convictions will stop. Works Cited Dutelle, Aric W. An Introduction to Crime Scene Investigation.
Coercion is an interrogation technique that uses intimidation to get suspects to confess to crimes whether or not they are truly guilty of any crime. Some will argue that coercion is a brilliant method with which to incarcerate criminals with. Others will say that it is much more beneficial to conduct a full investigation instead of relying on a confession that may or may not be reliable. From a personal point of view, I feel that there must be a concrete boundary indicating when coercion becomes torture. I am not against coercion when it is humane and fair but I feel that if extremely pernicious coercion techniques are used that the confession extracted from that interrogation should be discredited.
There are many reasons that a person commits a crime. There are multiple schools of thought when it comes to crime and the offender. Are they born predisposed to commit crime or are they taught the behaviors required to break the law? Of these many aspects we often ignore the possibility that genetics and our biological make up may be in part to blame for a person’s decision to violate the law. When a police detective begins to investigate a crime they must try to determine why the crime was committed, which will in turn help them develop a potential suspect.