Porosity analysis has two main parameters of interest that are typically used in further applications; pore volume (VP) and porosity (φ). Pore volume is the actual volume of pores within the sample and porosity is the ratio of empty space to total volume. From the American Petroleum Institute’s (API) Recommended Practice for Core Analysis (1998), these values can be calculated using equations 1 and 2 below using bulk volume (VB), which is the total volume of the sample, and grain volume (VG), which is the actual volume of the mass of the sample. V_P=V_B-V_G (1) φ=(V_B-V_G )/V_B (2) The two parameters can be related using equations 3 and 4 below. φ=V_P/(V_P+V_G) (3) φ=V_P/V_B (4) Pore volume, bulk volume and grain volume can all be determined experimentally using various methods, the most common of which are listed in the following table from API’s Recommended Practice for Core Analysis (1998).
I first started by performing an experiment that helped determine the mass of my sample. The mass of my sample is one of the key components that will help me determine the moles of my sample. By using the ideal gas law (PV=nRT to n= (PV)/RT) using the mass of my sample in grams, the temperature of my sample after it evaporated during the double-boiling lab, the atmospheric pressure in the room using a barometer, and the volume of the flask I found the moles of the sample (approximately 0.00530 moles). Using the moles I found the molecular weight (mass of sample/ moles of sample). The average molecular weight was 94.9 g/mol.
The symbol used to indicate density is ρ, and the SI unit is kg/m3. The general equation for density is, ρ = m/V, where m is the mass, and V is the volume of the fluid. Density of a fluid can be obtained through various means. One of the methods to determine a fluid’s density is by using the density measuring device, or called
American Memory: Born in Slavery.  Foner, 82.  Foner, 78.  Anna Baker, 5. American Memory: Born in Slavery.
The possible unknown acids were 2-chlorobenzoic acid, 3-chlorobenzoic acid, and 3-methylbenzoic acid. The purification of the isolated unknown acid was performed by recrystallization and its identity was established by analyzing the melting point range of the pure product and comparing it to the provided standards. In addition, a mixed melting point experimentation enhanced the fidelity of the unknown's identity when approximately equal amounts of the unknown and one of the standards (at a time) were mixed and the melting point range was recorded. Theory: Explain the theory behind acid base extraction. Why is it possible to separate compounds of different polarity?
The melting temperature for Ag2S is 837°C and for Ag2Se it is 897°C. Pingitore et al. and Ponce studied this system using optical microscopy, electron- probe microanalysis and X – ray diffraction and they found that there are two solid solutions at ambient conditions. One series is monoclinic which is from Ag2S to Ag2S0.4Se0.6 and the other series is orthorhombic which is from Ag2S0.3Se0.7 to Ag2Se. 3.
Error propagation (error formulas) was also used in this lab to account for sources of errors that could have occurred. Equations used: (1) C = Q/V = κε0A/d, this equation is derived using the capacitance of two charged parallel plates and through κ = ε/ε0. In this equation C is the capacitance of the capacitor, κ is the dielectric constant of the insulating material, ε0 is the permittivity of free space, A is the area of the charged plate, and d is the dielectric thickness. This equation was rearranged to C = κε0A(1/d) as a linear line of y = mx + b, in which C = y, 1/d = x, and κε0A = slope(m). (2) F = x/y = lFl x ((δx/IxI) + (δy/lyl)) was used for the error propagation of 1/d where x = 1 and y = d. This equation was also used for the error propagation of κ = slope/ ε0A where x = slope and y = A.
Dimensional analysis is routinely used to check the plausibility of derived equations and computations. It is also used to form reasonable hypotheses about complex physical situations that can be tested by experiment or by more developed theories of the phenomena, and to categorize types of physical quantities and units based on their relations to or dependence on other units, or their dimensions if any. In physics and all science, dimensional analysis is the practice of checking relations among physical quantities by identifying their dimensions. The dimension of any physical quantity is the combination of the basic physical dimensions that compose it. Some fundamental physical dimensions are length, mass, time, and electric charge.
2.3 MEASUREMENT OF MICROHARDNESS A microhardness measurement is done using the Mitutoyo micro hardness tester (load range 10 g to 2 Kg) for two samples. The measurements are taken at various radial locations on deformed pins to assess their work hardening. For the micro hardness test procedure, ASTM E-384 is followed to measure hardness value and the values are averaged. Sample preparation is necessary with a micro hardness test in order to provide a small enough specimen that can fit into the tester (Fig. 10).
Various theories of quantum gravity predict the existence of a minimum length scale, which leads to the modification of the standard uncertainty principle to the Generalized Uncertainty Principle (GUP). In this paper, we study two forms of the GUP and calculate their implications on the energy of the harmonic oscillator and the Hydrogen atom more accurately than previous studies. In addition, we show how the GUP modifies the Lorentz force law and the time-energy uncertainty principle. 1. Introduction Developing a theory of quantum gravity is currently one of the main challenges in theoretical physics.