The compulsory attendance act of 1852 enacted by the state of Massachusetts was the first general law attempting to control the conditions of children. The law included mandatory attendance for children between the ages of eight and fourteen for at least three months out of each year, of these twelve weeks at least six had to be consecutive.
The exception to this attendance at a public school included: the child's attendance at another school for the same amount of time, proof that the child had already learned the subjects, poverty, or the physical or mental ability of the child to attend.
The penalty for not sending your child to school was a fine not greater than $20.00 and the violators were to be prosecuted by the city. The local school committee did not have the authority to enforce the law and although the law was ineffective, it did keep the importance of school before the public and helped to form public opinion in favor of education.
In 1873 the compulsory attendance law was revised. The age limit was reduced to twelve but the annual attendance was increased to twenty weeks per year. Additionally, a semblance of enforcement was established by forming jurisdictions for prosecution and the hiring of truant officers to check absences.
The state of Connecticut enacted a law in 1842 which stated that no child under fifteen could be employed in any business in the state without proof of attendance in school for at least three months out of twelve. The penalty was $25.00 and the business was made financially responsible for the fine. Through this system of fines businesses were forced to be socially responsible for children as well. In addition, children could not work more than ten hours a day. T...
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..." Dewey encouraged cooperative social organization, association and exchange among teachers as a substitute for supervision, critic teaching and technical training.
Today the AFT continues to uphold the rights of teachers to help form school policies and programs. The AFT Motto is " Democracy in Education and Education for Democracy." The AFT continues to list as it's chief objectives the promotion of professionalism in teaching as well as securing appropriate wages, better working conditions and job security for it's members. AFT members still believe that collective bargaining along with discussion between those representing teachers and administrators is the democratic process that allows them to achieve their goals.
The AFT headquarters are in Washington,D.C. They publish a monthly publication "American Teacher" and a quarterly publication "American Educator."
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The Health and Morals Act of 1802 limited children under fourteen from working over twelve hours a day (Doc 3). The factor Act of 1833, which enacted that no person under 18 years of age shall be allowed to work at night in machinery (Doc 4). It allowed the child under 18 to work less than 12 hours a day or less than 69 hours in any one-week. There was a ten hours act, which said that the women or children's limit workdays are 10 hours.
Factories were utilizing children to do the hard work. They employed children as young as five or six to work as many as twenty hours a day. According to Document C, children worked in factories to build up muscles and having good intellect in working rather than getting an education. They became a different person rather than conventional children. There were additionally health issues due to child labor: rapid skeletal growth, greater risk of hearing loss, higher chemical absorption rates, and developing ability to assess risks. Progressive Era reformers believed that child labor was detrimental to children and to society. They believed that children should be protected from harmful environments, so they would become healthy and productive adults. In 1912, Congress created the Children’s Bureau to benefit children. The Keating-Owen Act was passed in 1916 to freed children from child labor only in industries that engaged in interstate commerce. However, it was declared unconstitutional sinc...
They would often get one one hour break for lunch, but recieved no time for breakfast, dinner, or going to the bathroom. The children would often have to walk to work, and it would be difficult for them to walk home after 14 hours of work. The amount of time that the children worked made it impossible for them to recieve an education or have any recreational time.The lack of education that these children recieved is shown in this quote by Furman Owens who is 12-years-old, can't read, and doesn't know his A,B,C's. He said, "Yes I want to learn but can't when I work all the time." In 1832 the New England Assosiation said that “Children should not be allowed to labor in the factories from morning till night, without any time for healthy recreation and mental culture,” for it “endangers their . . . well-being and health”(Continue to
The fight against labor received a good response from federal politicians. In the midst of this period children at a very young age were working in factories to support family. Children, under the age of fourteen, have been working eight hours a day for more than six days a week. Boys working in coal mines were crawling into newly blasted areas as well as other dangerous circumstances. Jane Addams helped bring up the facts that people were stuck in the admiration of the achievements of the industries they forgot about the children themselves (doc. C). With her influence, as well as others, the Child Labor Act was passed. There was not much impact because some industries continued to have young children working in their factories. In 1916 the Keating-Owen act was passed forbidding interstate shipment from factories employing children under the age of fourteen or children between fourteen and sixteen who work more than eight hours a day, overnight or more than six days a week. In 1918, in the Hammer vs. Dagenhart case Roland Dagenhart argued the Keating-Owen act was not a regulation of commerce (doc. G). He believed according to the tenth amendment the state should make the rules for child labor. He felt protected by the Fifth Amendment giving them the right to allow his children to work. The Supre...
Some of the advantages to this new public school choice option include: offers a way out of a low performing school, supports educational innovation because it supports alternatives to the traditional school day, school choice can match child and parents needs thus parents will be involved and more committed to the school and their child’s learning experience. (O’Neil, 1996) There are some restrictions when one thinks about the public school choice option. Restrictions include claims that all schools are too crowded, short windows of opportunity for parents to exercise choice, when parent can choose if they want to use school choice or not, and outright restrictions on which schools can participate in public school choice program. (Snell, 2002) Other disadvantages include: create inequalities by taking the more desirable students, fewer opportunities to learn from students of different backgrounds, and changes the focus from education for the public good to education for the private good. Education is no longer being seen as providing ‘some common experience in common se...
The last act that will be reviewed is the Education Act of 1880, which made school compulsory for all children between the ages of five and ten. Even though the Act made attendance mandatory for children in this age group, only eighty-two percent of children were attending school by the early 1890s. Many children continued to work as their families desperately depended on their incomes to order to make ends meet.
Many states were involved and enacted laws by the 1920s. Overall 36 states set laws against children, under the age of 16, working in factories at night or over eight hours. As a result, a lot people began to see the negative sides of child labor and advocated for children. More kids went to school for free and worked until they were 16. Thanks to the International Labor Organization, they’ve kept an eye out to regulate work since the twentieth century. There were only a few attempts of child labor but the more and more they tried, the more states banned children working underage. That made a huge impact in the US but still not in any other
I agree with Garland I feel that attendance shouldn’t be mandatory because that’s just forcing those who don’t want to learn go to school. Those who are always getting into fights and causing problems shouldn’t be able to attend school. I like how Garland talks about why mandatory attendance is just based upon the idea that every American has the right to basic education. “But as the old saying goes, your rights stop where the next guy’s begin” (620). Garland explains how every student who wants an education regardless of their inabilities should find a way to receive an education. On the other hand, I remember when I used to go to high school and I witnessed how my friends thought attendance was a big joke. My classmates would always show up late or not even bother to show up. Participation points weren’t a big deal in Hope Academy since all of our classes were online. It didn’t take long before the school started to enforce strict rules. If one doesn’t want to attend school, shouldn’t show up. I feel that mandatory attendance is outrageous. One who wants to learn will find a way to receive an education. Mandatory attendance just gives the trouble-makers an opportunity to waste everyone’s time for those who really want to learn. To sum up, mandatory attendance shouldn’t be allowed. Schools are learning centers that provide students education they aren’t centers of entertainments. Garland also talks about school cafeterias and how they serve unhealthy
Being a bad student and not showing up to schools should not be allowed to attend in the first place. Garland mentioned that one’s must stop allowing the attendance of the students that don’t want to come get the education they need. The troublemakers that are in school’s mess around and gets into more trouble and end up getting kicked out. Garland said, “Mandatory school attendance is based upon the idea that every American has a right to basic education” (620). Every student in school is obligated to be educated. A student who really wants an education no matter what their situation or ability that one has should get what they want. The troublemakers should be denied getting an education since they don’t want to be educated. On the other hand, when I was in middle school there were a lot of troublemakers that were sent to the office. At the office the principle would give them two choices iss in school suspension for a week or oss out of school suspension for three or four days. Most of the kids choose iss and when the week was over they would be sent back to the office. The principle would then give them detention or iss again and give their parents a call. It was a constant battle between the student and the principle. With having the attendance not be mandatory Garland mentions that the cafeteria food is
3). Is this really a good idea? Why was this rule placed for us in the first place? Just because you change the rules on the mandatory attendance policy does not necessarily mean that all of the students that are “unteachable” will drop out. What is really “unteachable”? How can one determined who wants to learn in elementary school when you really don’t have the mindset at the age of 10 to say that you want to go to school because who wants to at that age anyway. If this was even an option and it was no longer a mandatory attendance honestly no one will go to school. Who wouldn’t want to have recess all day every day? Then again how would that affect our future because everyone can’t work at
My Mom was very “Autocratic” (Popkin) about this issue. She is the youngest child of seven and every one of her siblings received awards for never missing a day of school in all twelve years. They were recognized in the town newspaper for this achievement combined with never missing a day of Sunday School. My older brother never missed a day of school from K-12. I missed one day in 4th grade when instead I went to the doctor because I insisted on staying home. My younger sisters both missed a day or two. One broke her leg but only missed about one day, the youngest was granted permission to miss school in High School for my Grandmother’s funeral. My brother left for his mission in August before school started so we got to go to the MTC to see him off; however when he left for Mexico, only my parents went to the airport to see him off (back in the days prior to the TSA when you could wait at the gate to say good-bye). My sisters and I were in school that day because my mom didn’t feel that was a valid reason to miss school. I went to school in 8th grade after throwing up in the morning. I remember feeling absolutely horrible all day and running into the bathroom at lunch to throw-up again. Clearly, missing school was not-negotiable for any reason. This issue handled in an autocratic style has had interesting effects on me. On the one hand I feel guilty when my children stay home from
Research shows that a national rate of ten percent of students are absent and it could be as high as fifteen percent, meaning that 5 million to 7.5 million students are absent. Not all children are going to like what they have to do but some things are required for a specific reason and this is one of those requirements. Holt says that at “the very least we should modify it perhaps by giving children every year a large number of authorized absences.” (74) I completely disagree with holt. Doing this will not only erupt the student himself but the class and teachers plans. Some might say they make it a law just so they can get their money. Well that money goes towards the school that the student should be in. The student is more likely to get in trouble with law or become a victim of a crime. If he/she misses regularly they will fall behind and they will have a decrease in academic scores. If this were to pass and large numbers of students were not to attend school it would make it “difficult for the teacher and the class to build their skills and progress” (Greatschools Staff) Attendance also prepares the young for later when they become employed it shows that they are reliable and