These groups not only demanded less severe taxes, but Colonial representation in Parliament. When England denied them representation, the Colonists decided to fight their colonizer for political freedom. Making the American Revolution the first anti-colonial, democratic revolution in history. With the battle cry of “ No taxation without representation”, Americans went to war and it is from this violent uproar that the United States of America was born. The “thirteen” colonies which would later become the Unites States of America were originally colonies of Great Britain.
Why did the Americans select the constitutional order they did in 1787-1789, and why did they reject a more democratic and confederal form not more than a decade old? In 1787, twenty-nine delegates convened in Philadelphia to tweak the Articles of Confederation. Some delegates, however, arrived with the intention of creating a completely new constitution. James Madison proposed the Virginia Plan, a plan which advocated a balanced, three-branch method of government with a bicameral, or two-house, Congress. In contrast, William Paterson submitted the New Jersey Plan which merely amended the Articles by giving the federal government more power.
By throwing off the British monarchy it left the states without a central government. The states needed a new government and fast, which paved way for the first constitution, the Articles of Confederation. The Articles of Confederation was started on November 15th 1777, and was in force on March 1, 1781. It was written to bring a union between the 13 states: New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. The article was written in the early part of the American Revolution by the committee of the second continental congress, because of the wars with Great Britain and the experience they have had with them.
James Madison of Virginia wanted a solution to the economic and political problems plaguing the new nation. He was convinced that the Articles of Confederation were inadequate, weak and in need of replacement. A strong centralized government, Madison believed, would provide greater stability and structure for the American economy. In 1786, Madison invited delegates from each of the 13 states to attend a Constitutional Convention. It was here that he hoped to create a plan for a stronger national government.
The U.S. constitution is the foundation of our national government. On September 17, 1787 it was signed by the delegates at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia. ("The U.S. Constitution") By signing this, the Constitution replaced the first national governing document called the Articles of Confederation. Before it could be passed, it had to be ratified by nine of the thirteen states. Soon after the constitution was finally ratified, in 1791 the government decided to add the Bill of Rights to the Constitution.
(pg. 24) A year later it was evident that independence from British rule was necessary and unavoidable; and, on July 4, 1776 the Declaration of Independence was adopted by the Second Continental Congress. The Declaration of Independence was a social contract between the government and the people. If at any time the government failed at its duties or became... ... middle of paper ... ...ion the government. With the addition of the Bill of Rights, the Constitution was ratified by nine of the thirteen states to become the new federal government.
The British empire had rung up a large debt fighting the French and looked to the colonies, as they were the subject to the war, to pay off these debts. Parliament passed several laws to generate revenue, regulate trade and pay its local government. The Sugar Act insured colonists bought sugar from English plantations, the Stamp Act taxed any printed material that passed hands in the colonies to generate revenue and the Quartering Act was used to shelter the standing British army in colonists homes. The colonists saw the British as a liberty loving empire but view... ... middle of paper ... ...thers felt it would be necessary to change the constitution as the nation grew. An independent judiciary system was created to (brief description).
After long nights and many debates the forefather's agreed upon drafting a new Constitution that would hold strong for future generations. The Constitution would provide a set of checks and balances to limit the new branches of the government and also contain a Bill of Rights that defined the most basic of rights for the people of America. Thirteen British colonies had asserted and established their their independence because they declared the form of government under which they had been living was destructive of their 'unalienable rights' of 'life , liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.' (Farrand, 1913) After much mistreatment by the British government the colonists of America became weary of their leaders. During the Second Continental Congress the Declaration of Independence was drafted.
The Bill of Rights After the Revolution, the States adopted their own constitutions, many of which contained a Bill of Rights. The Americans still faced the challenge of creating a central government for their new nation. In 1777 the Continental Congress adopted the Articles of Confederation, which were ratified in 1781. Under the Articles, the states retained their “sovereignty, freedom and independence,” while the national government was kept weak and inferior. Over the next few years it became evident that the system of government that had been chosen was not strong enough to completely settle and defend the frontier, regulating trade, currency and commerce, and organizing thirteen states into one union.
Could America have gradually and peacefully developed independence within the British Common wealth, as Canada later did, rather than engaging in a violent revolt? Soon after England’s victory in the Seven Years’ War, England struggled with the financial costs of the war. England’s Parliament tried to establish power in the New World by issuing a series of laws. England attempted to have the colonies help pay for the cost of the war that would later help lead to revolt in America. Prior to the Seven Years’ War, the English rarely intervened with colonial business.