Rome's most powerful rival was now the distant city of Carthage, ruler of north Africa and the western Mediterranean. During the Punic Wars, Rome suffered the humiliation of seeing a Carthaginian army on its soil for more than a decade. Neither Rome nor Carthage, led by the great general Hannibal, could prevail. Finally, the Carthaginians were forced to withdraw, and Rome chased them home to Africa. In 202 BC at the Battle of Zama, Rome defeated Carthage.
(Winks) On the Gallic side, his victories meant the spread of Roman language and civilization. Caesar defied an order from the Senate to give up his command and stay in Gaul, and he led his loyal troops south across the Rubicon River boundary, beginning a civil war. Within a few weeks Caesar was master of Italy. He then won another in Spain, and he defeated Pompey’s troops in Greece, to which most of the Senate had fled... ... middle of paper ... ...litical hotbed of rival classes and contenders for power. Augustus had seen Caesar’s rise to power and the awful way in which Caesar’s rule was ended.
Then they gained new ships and began to win. They gained control of Corsica, Sardinia, and Sicily. In 221 B.C., the second Punic war was started when Hannibal, a Carthaginian general, wanted revenge on the Romans because his father was killed in the first Punic war. In 202 B.C., there was the Battle of Zama when the Roman general Scipio went up against Hannibal.
But he was now Julius Caesar's son. As Rome once again fell into devastation, they needed someone who could pull Rome back together and take control. This led to the second triumvirate. The three men who were running in this were Lepidus, Octavian, and Marc Anthony. After Lepidus retired from running for dictator, it left only Octavian and Marc Anthony.
After his return he was anxious that his acts in Asia should be ratified by the Senate and certain lands be apportioned among his veterans. The Senate, had decided to declined to the accede to his wishes. Pompey had turned against the aristocratic party, now formed a close alliance with Julius Caesar, and the two men, together with Crassus, formed in 60 bc the coalition commonly called the First Triumvirate. Caesar's daughter Julia was given in marriage to Pompey, and in the following year Caesar had went repair Gaul, and stood there for nine years carried on a career of conquest while Pompey had spent his time at Rome with Julia.
Octavius joined Caesar on the return home in which Caesar secretly changed his will to make Octavian his successor. On 44 BC, Caesar was assassinated, and his will revealed that Caesar had adopted his great-nephew Octavius as his son, making him the heir to the thrown. This meant that Octavian’s name was to be changed to Gaius Julius Caesar. When Octavian returned to Rome, he found it being led by Mark Antony and Aemilius Lepidus. Octavian failed to convince Marc Antony to hand over Caesar’s assets and documents, however he was recruited into the senate and when Antony left Rome to take command in northern Italy, Octavian made war on Antony who was defeated and fled to Gaul.
Furthermore, Athena was the only Olympian not born of a mother. She sprang directly from her father, Zeus’s, head (Lies 47). She was different from the others of her kind, which may be why she was so honored so highly in early Greece. Festivals, Temples, even a city where named after the goddess. Athena’s key festivals included the Arrephonia, the Scriophonia, and the Panathehea.
This paper will discuss relative points and insights relating to sculpture of the Paleolithic era, specifically the Venus of Willendorf, through the essays of Christopher Witcombe. Venus is a term that has long been associated with artwork, most specifically the classical forms of beautiful women. The term Venus has also come to represent female sculptures of the Paleolithic era. The most notable of these female sculptures is the Venus of Willendorf, 24,000-22,000 BCE. The age of the figurine has been changed several times.
Augustan Art and Propaganda Julius Caesar's reign was an unfavorable and chaotic period for Rome, and after his death, a large portion of the empire was handed down to his adopted son, Gaius Octavian. From the ashes of his father, Octavian was able to build an Empire unparalleled. Later, the name Augustus was given to him by Senate. Augustus ostensibly maintained the form of the Roman Republic while in actuality creating the Roman Empire. He introduced the administrative reforms that led to the Pax Romana with its flourishing of trade and the arts.
In addition, to the political uncertainty within Rome, foreign leaders bound to Rome through commerce were uncertain whom to align themselves with, since the outcome of the civil war was unknown. After defeating Pompey in Greece (who later died in Egypt), Caesar was appointed dictator of Rome. He supervised his election to a second consulship and then resigned the dictatorship. Caesar sailed to Africa to defeat the remaining members of Pompey 's supporters. After the victory, he was appointed Dictator for ten years.