Philosophy of Science: A Very Short Introduction by Samir Okasha Synopsis Generally, science is a hotly discussed and vehemently debated topic. It is difficult to achieve consensus in science, considering the fact that ideas are diverse about even science definition, leave alone the true interpretations and meaning of scientific experiments, philosophies and discoveries. However, these arguments, disagreements as well as continuous trials to find a better reasoning, logic and explanation are exactly what have always been driving science progress from art to art form. It is worth noting that, in Philosophy of Science: A Very Short Introduction, the Author-Samir Okasha explore various way of looking at science via the prism of life by citing a variety of scientific experiments, and providing examples from history of science.
The Scientific Revolution by Steven Shapin defines a juncture in history when scholars that originally complied with accepted truths based from ancient Hellenistic Greece and Rome began to question the phenomenon that is our universe. Through observation of experimentation and theory, Shapin guides readers to consider nature as a macrocosm like scholars in this era. Societies during the scientific revolution began to reorder the way they saw the natural world and made efforts to examine nature and science as a closer relationship. While reading the scientific revolution we can examine the shift from stagnant religious beliefs and accepted truths, that were dictated by the middle ages, to the introduction of critical natural scholars like Nicholas Copernicus, Robert Boyle who contributed to the overall rapid aggregation of knowledge in Europe during the 18th century. Through observing and experimenting with the way nature interacts
ABSTRACT:There are various approaches to epistemology as well as to the philosophy of science. The attempt to naturalize them is the newest approach. In the naturalistic framework, epistemology turns out to be identical with the philosophy of science. The main characteristic of both naturalized epistemology and naturalized philosophy of science is their methodological monism. Therefore, both of these meta-level areas of philosophy pursue only one scientific discipline to be a meta-method for themselves. There are objections to naturalism on the basis that (from a methodological point of view) naturalized philosophy is monistic.
The importance that the Enlightenment placed upon reason was most obvious in the spheres of science and philosophy. Although this time period saw a rapid increase in scientific knowledge, the overarching idea behind the discoveries was that man could realize his full potential and progress towards perfection through the application of reason. Descartes’ epistemological foundationalism encouraged skeptical analysis in order to arrive at indubitable truth, and set the tone for the new metaphysics that emerged along with a vigorous interest in “natural philosophy” and the inductive study of the physical realm. At the same, however, there was intense philosophical discussion about the nature of the material world that was being studied. Some, like David Hume, believed that we had no way of knowing if our perceptions and the external world actually co...
To truly think about knowledge brings about some interesting thought. When asked to think about knowledge, most individuals concern themselves solely with what they know such as certain subjects, theories or facts. In the grand scheme of things, this way of thought is seemingly only minute or even superficial. As human beings, we do not always considered how we come to know what we know. We often place are acquisition of knowledge lower in a taxonomy of importance. All too often, individuals take knowledge and its power for granted. However, individuals like René Descartes and his work, The Meditations, provide a deep exploration of knowledge and all its facets. For every individual or scholar this work is very important in that it causes the reader to consider what we assume as truth and to envision a foundation for knowledge that is indubitable. The aim of this paper is to consider the role of knowledge in epistemology, to expose the concept of an indubitable foundation for all knowledge and the overall influence of Descartes on the imminent enquiries.
Longino defines her account of scientific knowledge relative to positivist and wholist accounts. Though many regard positivism as offering an untenable account of science, because "no comparable sweeping and detailed philosophical view has replaced it," Longino believes that it still needs to be reckoned with (L1990, 21). Wholists are significant because they have been the greatest critics of positivism. After presenting these accounts, and explaining the difficulties that Longino has with them, I will present Longino's own account of scientific knowledge and inquiry.
Scientific Empiricism In 1513, Nicholas Copernicus, composed a brief theory that stated that the sun is at rest and the earth is in rotation around the sun. In 1543, just days before his death, Copernicus published this theory in On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres. This theory was meant to dissolve the long lived belief in Ptolemyís theory which stated, "The earth was at the center because it was the heaviest of objects(Kagan331). " This was a common belief at that time, which supported the religious beliefs that the earth was the center of the universe and God in the heavens were surrounding the earth.
Kevin Forde 12 December 2013 Intro to Western Philosophy Qrescent Mason The Quest for Knowledge The quest for knowledge, a topic often contemplated in philosophy, remains persistent with mankind seeking to understand the uncertainty in the world surrounding him. Epistemology is the branch of philosophy that raises questions and provides answers about what constitutes knowledge and justifies belief. The main concerns of knowledge in epistemology are how it is defined, what the source is, how it’s acquired, what its limitations are, and what kind of knowledge is necessary.
A phenomenologist, David Abram, in his book The Spell of the Sensuous, discusses that human is “inter-subjective.” (Abram, 36) Phenomenology is a method of getting to truth through observing how phenomena present themselves to the senses and to the mind, as Abram defines, “phenomenology would seek not to explain the world, but to describe as closely as possible the way the world makes itself evident to awareness, the way things first arise in our direct, sensorial experience.” (Abram, 35) Phenomenology poses the terms inter-subjectivity to describe what is real. Subjectivity refers to the essence of the “I”—first-person perspective. Inter-subjectivity is the perspective developed between, called a kind of “We-ness”. In phenomenology, reality is a collective construction—it is not subjective to the individual or is objectively determined by things, but rather it is inter-subjective.
“Arguments Concerning Scientific Realism” is Bas van Fraassen’s attack on the positive construction of science. He starts by defining scientific realism as the goal of science to provide a “literally true story of what the world is like;” and the “acceptance of a scientific theory” necessitates the “belief that it is true”. This definition contains two important attributes. The first attribute describes scientific realism as practical. The aim of science is to reach an exact truth of the world. The second attribute is that scientific realism is epistemic. To accept a theory one must believe that it is true. Van Fraassen acknowledges that a “literally true account” divides anti-realists into two camps. The first camp holds the belief that science’s aim is to give proper descriptions of what the world is like. On the other hand, the second camp believes that a proper description of the world must be given, but acceptance of corresponding theories as true is not necessary.