Stravinsky Retrospectives. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1987. Joseph, Charles M., Stravinsky's Ballets. Yale University Press, 2012 Tansman, Alexandre. Igor Stravinsky.
Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, n.d. Sternfeld, F. W. Music in Shakespearean Tragedy. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1963. HSU ML8O.55.58 Walter, J. H. Introduction to King Henry V. Ed. Walter. The Arden Ed.
The Music of Dmitri Shostakovich: the symphonies. Tantivy Press, 1979 Brown, Royal S. ‘Interview with Shostakovich.’ High Fidelity, 23 (October 1973). Fanning, David. The Breath of the Symphonist: Shostakovich’s Tenth. Royal Musical Association, 1988.
Orfeo ed Euridice by Gluck, was written in 1762 and The Marriage of Figaro by Mozart was written in 1786. It is interesting to analyse the changes and developments from opera seria to these two examples. During the eighteenth century, composers wrote in a style of opera called opera seria.' Opera seria had the following characteristics: They used similar plots involving a hero and usually some sort of conflict of human passions, and these operas were often based on a story from an ancient Greek or Latin Author. The opera always consisted of three acts with alternating recitatives and arias.
Music: An Appreciation. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1976. Print. Sheet Music: Handel, George Frideric. Messiah.
While Beethoven and Berlioz composed their symphonies as complete works Daugherty allows conductors to perform movements separately if they desire. This makes each movement more like a tone poem than a full symphony. It is easy to see though by the Dies Irae in the fifth movement and the storm like atmosphere of the fourth movement how Daugherty was influenced by these two composers who came over one hundred years before him. In conclusion, the programmatic symphony has been used to create some of the greatest works of musical literature in the past two hundred years. In the next century composers will probably follow in these composers’ footsteps and expand the size of the orchestra to create new timbres and tell stories through tone painting in symphonies.
Works Cited Gossett, Philip, William Ashbrook, Julian Budden, Friedrich Lippmann, Andrew Porter, Mosco Carner. Masters of Italian Opera. New York: Norton and Company, 1980. Grout, Donald Jay, and Williams, Hermine Weigel. A Short History of Opera: 4th Edition.