The decision was quickly made to attack and take the island of Iwo Jima, code named operation detachment. June 1944, Lieutenant General Tadamichi Kuribayashi was chosen as command of Iwo Jima (National Geographics). Kuribayashi had lived and trained in the United States so knew the only way to have a chance against the American’s superior fire power was to fight the battle from underground where they would be protected (Hickman). Iwo Jima was an important island for the Japanese because it provided an area of attack and functioned as a buffer zone for Americans attempting to bomb their homeland. Initial bombing raids against Iwo Jima began in June 1944 (Navy Department Library).
The destroyers of the naval armada prepared for the Normandy landings played a pivotal role in the battles on the beaches. Furthermore, without the support of the destroyers, specifically on Omaha Beach, the infantry landings on D-Day would have failed and the Allies would have been defeated. D-Day by Stephen E. Ambrose follows the landings on the Calvados coast of Normandy from the pre-planning stages all the way up through the invasion and through about D-Day plus one - one day after the Normandy landings. The first two chapters deal with the combatants in a general fashion before moving on to the location of the landings and why it was chosen. From there, Mr. Ambrose moves into planning of the operation and the preparation for the same.
Their forces consisted of the 3rd, 4th and 5th Marine Divisions. The 4th and 5th Marine Divisions were to land on the eastern beaches the 4th on the right and the 5th on the left. The 3rd Marines would either land on the eastern beaches or assume a defensive role, which ever was called (Planning for the Battle of Iwo Jima, n.d.). Though their whole defense was based on the waves themselves. Sixty-eight Tracked Landing Vehicle, comprising the first wave, were to hit the beach.
All the forces of the Allied military assembled together to execute an unprecedented assault on the beaches of Normandy. The Allies made full use of deception. The Allies needed to force the Germans to expand their line of defense. If the Allies attacked a position where the Germans waited with a mass of troops, the Allies would be crushed. Spreading out the German lines was the main goal of the Allies.
An amphibious landing is when air, land, and sea forces land at the same time for an invasion. As the Allies moved North and tried to secure Finschhafen, Japanese troops attacked Scarlet Beach. This battle lasted roughly a week and caused the Australian lines to split up their force. However, the Australians contined on and set out to control Sattleberg. This was particularly important to the Australians because it was good for observing the coast and if the Japanese took control, they could disrupt Australian communication lines.
Madden-Fong 2 A map of Iwo Jima (Wolny). America also wanted Iwo Jima because they needed a base near Japans main islands, it would allow for the sea and air blockade of Japan and the ability to conduct air bombardment and to destroy the enemy's air and naval powers. Knowing that the island was of such importance, the Japanese needed desperately to maintain control of it. There were about twenty two thousand soldiers under the command of Lieutenant General Kuribayashi. These soldiers had had the time to build very strong defensive positions throughout the island.
They were instrumental in Americas war efforts. The early advances by the Japanese were both swift and precise. They targeted the one thing they needed most, the raw materials to run their country (Rice 14). But the first real move made by the Japanese war machine was the all out air attack on the America heave fleet stationed at Pearl Harbor. The Japanese, who felt America to be the only great threat to their expansion into the Pacific(Stein 6).
The Battle of Midway was a main turning point in the Pacific Theatre. The US was on the defensive for the duration of the war until the victory at Midway because of the Germany First policy, and the devastating Pearl Harbor attack. The US always made sure to use one of its advantages at all times, cryptography. Cryptography was a major part of the win in Midway, and the US also had the element of surprise also supplied from cryptography. The victory at Midway provided the time the US needed to turn out more ships and planes, including the Essex-class ship.
“ The broad outline of the attack was relatively simple: find suitable beaches, gather landing forces, isolate the battlefield by attacking bridges, tunnels, and rail networks so that German defenders could not be easily reinforced, and land the troops. Once a beachhead was established, the plan was to pour in the supplies needed to sustain an offensive and then break out into the French Countryside” (Encarta) The attack was code named Operation overlord. The target date was spring of 1944. The weather and tides played a large role in the date that the attack would occur. Tides were the most important since the attack was amphibious both land and water.
D-day was the beginning of the end of the war. The invasion of Normandy allowed the Allied forces to get their soldiers back on the European mainland and to start defeating German opposition and Nazi tyranny. It was the major turning point of World War II and perhaps one of the greatest strategic military operations that ever executed. As the tide of World War II began to turn in favor of the Allies, U.S. General Dwight D. Eisenhower had the task of forming the largest invasion fleet in history, in order for an amphibious landing on the northern coast of France to be effective. If it was executed as planned and labeled a success, the landing would be the starting point for the massive attack.