In early history, all the waste generated by people, which composition was totally organic, was left on the ground where it was decomposed with time. Moreover, the population was small and everything was repaired and reused. As people began to produce items for their comfort and build houses, the population grew and cities burgeoned. According to National Waste & Recycling Association (2012), as population grew, waste production increased, and consequently emerging the necessity to develop waste disposal systems. Industrial Revolution led in greater production and consumption. As a result, the waste generation has become higher and alarming. According to Laurent et. al. (2014), the amount of solid waste worldwide generated in 2012 was approximately 17 billion tons with an estimate of 27 billion tons by 2050. Currently, the solid waste composition is varied and can be differentiated by many classifications. Solid waste can be classified into three categories according to the Resource Conservation Recovery Act (as cited in the United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2012):
(i) Non-Hazardous: “any garbage or refuse, sludge from a wastewater treatment plant, water supply treatment plant, or air pollution control facility and other discarded material, including solid, liquid, semi-solid, or contained gaseous material.”
(ii) Hazardous: “ Waste that is dangerous or potentially harmful to our health or the environment. Hazardous wastes can be liquids, solids, gases, or sludge. They can be discarded commercial products, like cleaning fluids or pesticides, or the by-products of manufacturing processes.”
(iii) Municipal: “Consists of everyday items we use and then throw away, such as product packaging, grass clippings, furniture, ...
... middle of paper ...
...d Nations. (1997). United Nations Conference on Environmental and Development.
Retrieved from http://www.un.org/geninfo/bp/enviro.html
United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2014). Municipal Solid Waste. Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/wastes/nonhaz/municipal/ United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2014). Non-Hazardous Waste Management Hierarchy. Retrieved from
Non-Hazardous Waste http://www.epa.gov/wastes/nonhaz/municipal/hierarchy.htm
Zahra, K., Majeed, K., Mahmood, A., & Asad, M. (2012). Impact Assessment of Community
Participation in Solid Waste Management Projects in Selected Areas of Faisalabad City.
Journal Of Urban Planning & Development, 138(4), 319-327.
Zaman, A., & Lehmann, S. (2013). The zero waste index: a performance measurement tool for waste management systems in a ‘zero waste city’. Journal Of Cleaner Production, 50123-132.