I will begin by briefly describing direct and indirect realism and follow with countering two of the main arguments indirect realists use against direct realists. Direct Realism vs. Indirect Realism Direct Realism is the belief that perception is an immediate and direct understanding of objects that are existent in the external world, independent of the mind. The objects in this external world have qualities such as shape, size, texture, colour taste and smell which exist and continue to obtain their properties regardless of whether they are being perceived or not. Direct realists hold that through our senses we have the ability to obtain knowledge about the object itself and what is being perceived is the exact object that exists in this external, mind-independent world.
First, it is necessary to distinguish between different types of sensory perception for clarity’s sake. Philonous systematically shows where all sensory perceptions break down to qualia within the mind in the beginning of his dialogue, first with secondary qualities, and then primary qualities. To explain our sense of objective reality, Philonous refers to an ultimate observer, who observes everything, at all times. There are however some issues with Berkeley’s idealist theory, as I will explore at the end of this paper. In order to discuss sensory perceptions, we need a definition of the kinds of things that can be perceived, and a general acceptance of the terms used throughout the dialogue.
Saussure followed that if we are able to recognise things through mental representations, then the brain also has to recognise words we hear via mental representations, in conjunction with distinguishing what the words mean via representations. From this, Saussure goes on to make the sign the unity of sound-image and concept. Thus like Aristotle he seems to think that there are mental facts (concepts). He does not believe however of the sound as a sign of those concepts, rather that the sound that travels due to the physical disturbance in the air (is associated with a mental representation of the sound) the sound-image.
Is it true (as Locke argues) that you can completely remove a thing's secondary qualities, but that its primary qualities can only be changed, not wholly removed? Consider this question alongside Locke's claim that secondary qualities are powers in objects to cause sensations in perceivers. What consequences does your answer have for Locke's attempt to draw a distinction between primary and secondary qualities? Locke on Primary and Secondary Qualities Locke, an indirect realist, explores our immediate perceptions and with this attempts to draw a line between ideas and qualities, just how these are different entities. Sometimes referred to as Representative Theory, according to Locke, we are aware only of our ideas, these being things existing “in our minds”, sensations created.
3). By drawing on more advanced biological knowledge of the brain’s activities in different areas, Storbeck and Clore (2007) concluded that the visual cortex could actually identify subliminal stimuli (which is regarded as a kind of cognitive activities) without its being consciously aware of by the subject. The only difference between a conscious and unconscious cognitive processing, they argued, was the strength of firing of the neurons which determined whether such information entered the subject’s consciousness, and leading to a more confident identification of the stimuli. Hence an unconscious processing doesn’t rule out cognitive activities and implies a preferential processing of affective components. Furthermore, they argued that amygdala was not the essential part in the mere exposure effect by citing the case of a patient GY whose amygdala has been severed from his visual cortex (Greve & Bauer, 1990) yet who was still shown to have the mere exposure effect.
Definitions of Learning Styles Although learning style may be simply defined as the way people come to understand and remember information, the literature is filled with more complex variations on this theme. James and Gardner (1995), for example, define learning style as the "complex manner in which, and conditions under which, learners most efficiently and most effectively perceive, process, store, and recall what they are attempting to learn" (p. 20). Merriam and Caffarella (1991) present Smiths definition of learning style, which is popular in adult education, as the "individuals characteristic way of processing information, feeling, and behaving in learning situations" (p. 176). Swanson (1995) quotes Reichmann's reference to learning style as "a particular set of behaviors and attitudes related to the learning context" and also presents Keefe's definition of learning style as "the cognitive, affective, and physiological factors that serve as relatively stable indicators of how learners perceive, interact with, and respond to the learning environment" (p. 2). These definitions have understandable variations as they tend to reflect the perspectives of different learning styles inventories.
Humanists believe the relationship is pre-determined and fixed whereas post-structuralism disagrees. The proposal that the word and object are linked inevitably means that the word possesses all the qualities that are attached to the object when we think of the word. Therefore the definition is not inherent in the object or word but rather through the association between a thing and the words/letters we relate to it. Consequently the effect is that meaning making becomes contextually specific making it impossible for meaning making to be rigid and rather it constantly be subject to change.
Comparing the Two Theories of Cognitive Development There are three main types of cognitive development. There is Piaget's theory, Vygotsky's theory and the Information processing approach. The two theories that I am going to compare and contrast are Piaget and Vygotsky's theories. There are many differences between these two theories, but there are also many similarities too. Piaget suggests that cognitive development takes place as a result of experiences which force the child to accommodate new information, creating new schemas and occasionally leading to a qualitatively different kind of thinking- moving from one stage to another, but these changes need to depend on readiness.
He believed that the techniques and ways of knowing that applied to the natural sciences could not always be used to grasp the concepts present in the human sciences (more specifically, psychology). He b... ... middle of paper ... ... and ignore our limitations rather than focus on them since we are already limited by our ways of knowledge. On the contrary, my proposed ideas highlight the importance of identifying one’s limitations and attempting to make up for them by using a variety of tools to solve a specific problem rather relying on one tool only. In conclusion, Maslow’s quote is very relevant when looking at ways of knowing as tools used in the pursuit of knowledge. The quote describes how the extent and quality of the knowledge we acquire is reliant on our proper use of a variety of ways of knowing rather than relying on one.
The dialectical approach involves interaction among distinct processes, where Vygotsky’s theory that development is a complex dialectical process is also a main theme in Piaget’s approach to cognitive development. A non-reductionist view of consciousness and human intelligence. Vygotsky’s thesis, states that “psychology teaches us at every step that though two types of activity can have the same external manifestation, whether in origin or essence, their nature may differ most profoundly” (as cited in Laurenco, 2012, p. 283), which coincides with Piaget’s “distinction between the external content of a child’s answer on the operational task, and its underlying structure or form” (Laurenco, 2012). The two also share the non-dualist thought, in that, the individual’s physical and social context are not independent, but rather based on relational interactions with others (Laurenco, 2012). Piaget and Vygotsky also both put a strong emphasis on action.