The type of government Ancient Egyptian was theocracy. This means they worshiped a single person as a God; and primarily being the Pharaoh.
Religion was a major part of Ancient Egyptians’ lives. Their faith was so engrained in them that it was more of a lifestyle than a set of beliefs. The Egyptians practiced polytheism, or the worship of many gods, and they believed that their pharaoh was a god on Earth (Doc 3). The people worshipped the pharaoh and gave him all respect and power. They believed that their two main goals in life were to keep the pharaoh and the other gods happy and to live a good life so that they may enjoy a happy life after death. Their shared faith strengthened their society because everyone was working toward the same goal. Groups were not divided based on what god they worshipped. Instead, the fact that every person lived to please the same gods and wished to go to the same afterlife gave them something in common and brought them together as a community. Sumerians also practiced polytheism and believed that their priests were connected to the gods. The people thought it was their responsibility to keep the gods happy, and believed that if the gods were pleased, they would allow their people to be content as well (Doc 6). Because of their desire to please the gods, Sumerians performed every task to the best of their ability. For example, they invested lots of time and money into their ziggurats, or temples, because they only wanted to give their best to the gods. The Sumerians’ devotion to every task ensured that everything was done well and helped their civilization
Mesopotamian and Egyptian religions shared two key similarities: polytheism and priestly authority. The religions in Mesopotamia and Egypt were both polytheistic. Their religions were polytheistic because Mesopotamians and Egyptians could not explain many things in that occurred in their lives. Therefore, they assumed that there are different gods for everything. This means that the religion had many gods for different things. In Egypt and Mesopotamia, priests were part of the upper class and were very important in the daily lives of civilians. Priests were part of the upper class because they were thought to have the ability to communicate with the gods. In Mesopotamia, the priests held the highest authority in the religious structure. Egyptian priests were not as powerful in government as Mesopotamian priests were, but they still had significant power. Egypt’s highest religious and military leader was encapsulated in the position of pharaoh. The pharaoh was at the top of all social classes and was considered to be a god-like figure.
I have chosen to discuss the civilizations of Mesopotamia and Egypt. Both have many significant similarities and differences. I would like to compare some important points in four common categories. I will compare and contrast the geography and its impact, the political structure of each society, the importance of their existing class structures and finally the role of women in these dynamic civilizations.
The Egyptian and Roman civilizations had a very similar social hierarchy and government system even though they existed in vastly different eras. During their separate reins of power both Egypt and Rome ruled their geographical areas unprecedented. These two empires grew quickly through technological advances, military might, and strong economies. Their reins would come to an end eventually however they left their mark in history through the written language, government, religion, and the construction of magnificent structures that still exist until this day.
Egypt’s culture was one of the most diverse and religious cultures of its time. Much of early Egyptian culture was based around the flooding of the Nile and the nutrients it brought for them to farm. The river was their oasis in the middle of one of the harshest environments. It was this that helped them to become a very hardened and capable society that could withstand the tests of time. Their religion also reflected their hard steadfastness since it was of their own creation. Other than a few of the well known gods of creation each village and town in Egypt had a different set of gods. With each place having the freedom to do what they wanted with the religion they could “personalize” it to suit their individual needs. Egyptian people realized that they were not perfect, this fact is clearly represented in their religion and mythology. It was also seen in their religious art, such as on the walls of pyramids, that they believed that the deceased would be judged in the afterlife for what they did. This judgment would dictate wether or not they wo...
Sumerians and Egyptians can be different in many ways; they can be different in geography, religion, and kings. In Sumer rivers flooded but they were very unpredictable, different of Egypt where the river was very predictable. Sumerians hated their afterlife, but the Egyptians loved their afterlife. Hammurabi was very different from the Pharaohs in Egypt. They ruled differently. Sumer and Egypt are both ancient civilizations, but they are very different from each
The word “ancient” can be a hard word to describe. It has no specific time period, but also does at the same time. When something is described as ancient, it is something that is extremely old, or was in the very distant past. Ancient Egyptian and Ancient Greek civilizations co-existed from 1150BC to 146BC. They had different systems, beliefs, and life styles, just like how different countries do today. There were also similarities, such as both having a single person be the ruler, not giving equal power to everyone. For Greeks, this would be a king and for Egyptians, and Pharaoh. Both Ancient Egypt and Ancient Greece believed in mythology – a similarity between the two. However, much of their mythology was different. Although both Egypt
Early civilizations have strikingly similar political and social structures. Also, one cannot help notice the similarity in their geographical locations as well as their religious beliefs. However, there are key differences between various early civilizations in terms of religion and their socio-political setups. Below is a description of some of the similarities and differences between the early Indus (Indian) civilization and the early Egyptian civilization based on their key geographical features and religious beliefs.
The religion aspect of the two civilizations were quite similar in a few ways. The Mesopotamians and Egyptians equally had a polytheistic view of religion. Mesopotamia and Egypt both had multiple deities to help explain how the world works. Egyptians believed in gods such as Ra, Isis, and Horus. Mesopotamia also had their gods like Adad and Ashur to represent natural occurrences such as the sun. These similarities played a role in their way of life, values and their government as well. Despite similar polytheistic views, the two differed in a more detailed aspect. While Egypt had Pharaohs, who were viewed as gods to the Egyptians, and were the figure of law in the land. Mesopotamians had leaders who represented demi-gods, or not a full god. This difference directly affected the way Egyptians and Mesopotamians viewed the afterlife. The Egyptians had a complex view of the afterlife, where they detailed the process of mummification and the process of transitioning to the afterlife. The Mesopotamians, on the other hand, viewed the afterlife as a simple, deep, and eternal
As you can see there are many differences and similarities between the Sumerians and Ancient Egyptians. Both were one of the first civilizations and contributed into the development of how our world works today. From politics to family life our culture today has come from a very long line of ancient civilizations and reforms.
When comparing cultures it would be difficult to find two that are more diverse than the Mesopotamian and Egyptian cultures. The Mesopotamian culture was filled with tension and instability while the Egyptian people maintained a stable and somewhat more content way of life. In examining these two cultures one can surmise that these differences are mainly due to the political, economic, social, religious, and geographic differences between Egypt and Mesopotamia. These factors added to the overall mentality of the people. These mentalities affected the stability of each culture, whether for the better or worse.
Many things we today take for granted would not be possible without the first of civilizations. Two of the oldest civilizations can be found in the regions known as the Nile River Valley and Mesopotamia. These areas bore the largest social structures of their era. Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt have various similarities and differences within their government, cities, social structure, job specification, and religion.
Around 3000 B.C.E two civilizations in Afro-Eurasia grew from river valley based agrarian societies. These civilizations known today as Egypt and Mesopotamia set the bar for future civilizations to reach. Both civilizations flourished at nearly the same time, in some ways they followed similar paths, but in others they would differ and do things their own way. Topics that highlight the relationship between these societies are the effects the environment had on the growth of these civilizations, the emergence of a social structure, the development of social issues.
Civilization is an advanced state of human society, in which a high level of culture, science, industry, and government has been reached. Mesopotamia and Egypt are both perfect examples of this definition. Both of these ancient civilizations have been credited with providing the world with a plethora of contributions dating back to around 4000 B.C.