This is evident through much of Trotsky’s work as the leader of the Petrograd Soviet in September 1917, which saw Trotsky re-invent the Bolshevik plan to seize power, curbing Lenin’s ruthless ambition as he aimed for the swift overthrow of Kerensky . ‘The provisional government was brought down with barely a shot fired… they looked to undermine his government through those of the Petrograd Soviet.’ This passage suggests Trotsky was hugel... ... middle of paper ... ...ectively work with him. But he was an industrious worker and a talented person, and for Lenin, that was the main thing’ . Trotsky, despite his nuances and arrogance, was hugely significant in the short term through his brilliant tactics throughout the October Revolution where the Bolsheviks took control of Russia. Furthermore his coordination of the Red Army was definitive in Bolshevik victory in the civil war, removal of opposition in the terror, and he played an under appreciated role in reclaiming of occupied Russian lands following the world war.
Designed in France and Germany, it was brought into Russia in the middle of the nineteenth century and promptly attracted support among the country's educated, public- minded elite, who at that time were called intelligentsia (Pipes, 21). After Revolution broke out over Europe in 1848 the modern working class appeared on the scene as a major historical force. However, Russia remained out of the changes that Europe was experiencing. As a socialist movement and inclination, the Russian Social-Democratic Party continued the traditions of all the Russian Revolutions of the past, with the goal of conquering political freedom (Daniels 7). As early as 1894, when he was twenty-four, Lenin had become a revolutionary agitator and a convinced Marxist.
Marxism and Leninism According to most historians, “history is told by the victors”, which would explain why most people equate communism with Vladimir Lenin. He was the backbone of Russia’s communist revolution, and the first leader of history’s largest communist government. It is not known, or discussed by most, that Lenin made many reforms to the original ideals possessed by many communists during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. He revised Karl Marx and Friedrich Engles’ theories to fit the so-called ‘backwardness’ of the Russian Empire. Lenin’s reforms were necessary to carry out a socialist revolution in Russia, and the contributions he made drastically changed the course of history.
Due to "quirks" in the human mind that just can't seem to be worked out, the Marxist ideal simply cannot work. Marx's prediction was that communism would prevail in the highly industrialized countries of Western Europe. Instead, it took place in Russia, a country troubled by its corrupt head of state. By definition a Communist revolt demanded an industrialized country as its focus, where a militant and organized proletariat had had a chance to develop. The revolution of 1917, however, exploded in Czarist Russia, one of the most backward countries in Europe.i Russia in the early 20th century was mainly agricultural, rather than industrial, but through their exasperation and strong leadership, the Communists prevailed.
However, Marx and Engels came to see socialism as merely an intermediate stage of society in which most industry and property were owned in common but some class differences remained. They reserved the term communism for a final stage of society in which class differences had disappeared, people lived in harmony, and government was no longer needed. The meaning of the word communism shifted after 1917, when Vladimir Lenin and his Bolshevik Party seized power in Russia. The Bolsheviks changed their name to the Communist Party and installed a repress... ... middle of paper ... ...that lacked the preconditions he and Engels considered essential, namely capitalism and a mature industrial economy. The first of these countries was Russia, a huge, poor, relatively backward nation that was just beginning to acquire an industrial base.
Communism is the belief that everyone in a society should be equal and share their wealth. It is an outgrowth of socialism and Anabaptism (Laski 45). It became a firmly rooted term after the Russian Revolution of 1917. According to the words of Karl Marx, "From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs" 1. These theories were spread by Karl Marx.
Even though history has shown that communist countries have used brutal tactics, communism at its core is not about cruelty or denial, it is simply a political ideal that emphasizes equality for all, nobody regardless of any factor should have more or less than anyone else. The basic ideology of communism is simple. Everyone is equal, there is no poor or rich and wealth gained is evenly distributed to all. Karl Marx created ten tenets of communism that included government control of all labor, industry and education, abolition of private property and property rights and heavy but equal taxation on all. He believed along with many other communist leaders that worldwide adoption must be achieved in order for communism to succeed.
The article states that communism is a higher form of socialism and the ideas Karl Marx laid down to create a classless society through the use of communism. The article has excerpts about how Marx identified two phases of communism and how communism would eventually overthrow capitalism. The article reviews his two phases one of which describes how the working class would control society and the government; the other being Marx’s idea of, “From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs.” After reviewing this I concluded that it is a good source because of its use of historical principles about communism and excerpts from Marx who is known for his studies and ideas that made communism what it is. This article also brings an established definition of communism with various established contributors to develop an educated definition. The article delivers very clean and clear information about communism and the history of communism.
As reflected throughout the text, it was no secret Orwell considered Russia, and consequently Communism, a counter-revolutionary force that would inevitably become corrupted by greed and power. Indeed, perhaps in order to go further in offering a Marxist reading of the text, it is necessary to pass judgement on the author and the epoch in which the book was written. In doing so, I hope to show just how progressive (or anti-progressive) the book is. From almost the very beginning of this book it possible to see Orwell's criticism of Karl Marx, displayed through `Old Major'. Many of the characters in the book symbolize real political figures.
In conclusion, Marxism was distorted many times during the Russian Revolution and used by those seeking to create a socialist society. First, Lenin heavily warped Marxian views and instated a vanguard to take charge of the revolution. Trotsky followed, however he was considerably more Marxists than Lenin, and joined the Bolsheviks in espousing Marxism to the masses. Even after the Revolution, supposed ‘Marxism’ was used to oppose Stalin. Though, Trotsky made a horrific mistake in defining the workers state and, in doing so, diverged from socialism from below (the original Marxist view) and unknowingly began siding with socialism from above.