So, with the changed necessity of language learning, the teaching methods and approaches have also been altered. The importance of facial expressions and gestures (body language, paralinguistic aspects etc.) are agreed to be important in
When the East India Company continued to trade under the British, huge armies were created, largely composed of Indian sepoys (Marshall). The armies were used to defend the Company’s territories protect the Indian states (Marshall). With major control over India, the British used a combination of firepower & guile to consolidate their power over the country by expanding from their base areas along the coast into the interior (Duiker 31). Some territories were also taken over the privately run East India Company, which at the time was given authority to administer Asian territories under British occupation, while others were ruled by local maharajas (Duiker 31). British governance brought order and stability to a society that had recently been wrecked by the wars from the different empires (Duiker 31).
Analysis of Students’ Needs in Learning English as Foreign Language in Faculty of Information Technology of Satya Wacana Christian University Introduction As one implication of the global use of English in many fields such as politics, business, medical, science, and information technology, the needs of learning English for specific purposes or ESP get increased. Through this ESP ones can learn, for example the specific terms used in Information Technology and also about procedures (…) things in that field. This ESP is seen as a way to cover the insufficient of English in many fields with use of technical language. This is in line with Douglas’ opinion proposing that “the use of language for specific purpose is because the technical language that used in any academic, professional, or vocational field.” (2000) Although ESP ideally accommodates the need of learning English for certain purposes, the practice may not always work well. The reason can be about time limitation in the teaching and learning process, if ESP is taught at school it is usually allocated in limited time and place to practice the language.
English was primarily introduced in the colony to serve the needs of the British administration; to educate a class of Indians who could function as “interpreters between the British administrators and the millions of Indians they governed”. To put in Lord Macaulay’s words, “a class of persons Indian in blood and colour, but English in taste, opinions, in morals, and in intellect” (quoted in Phillipson 2007:110). According to Viswanathan, the British need for a disciplinary branch of knowledge emanated from its compulsion to perform the task of administering their colonial subjects. Similarly, Ania Loomba states that “The rise of literary studies as a ‘discipline’ of study in British universities was in fact linked to the perceived needs of colonial administrators” (Colonialism 75). However, this “disguised form of authority” (Masks 23) has complemented as a mask that concealed the actual terrors of colonialism.
They eventually began taking advantage of internal conflicts in India and started to establish colonies. Most of India was under the control of the British East India Company by the mid-19th century. There are many reasons for establishing colonies. In the case of Britain’s colonies in India one reason might have been to gain economic benefits. Many countries depend upon their colonies for raw materials and for their markets.
Zaidan & Jassem (1997), also agree and states that the sound of English knowledge is a major element in speaking native-like English. This makes it more importance for English Language teachers to know about the sounds of English language (Deterding & Poedjosoedarmo, 1998). Teachers must uncover the knowledge of phonology to help themselves and learners in teaching and learning. Teachers’ awareness of this importance will help students to be fluent in their English Language in speaking, listening and reading. According to Fromkin, Rodman & Hyams (2003), phonology is the study of the ways in which speech sounds form systems and patterns.
Content based or enriched English as a Second Language instruction is an approach that provides second language learners with instruction in content and language. In this approach, students are exposed to a considerable amount of English through motivating content. Students are taught useful language that is embedded within relevant context rather than as isolated language. This approach tries to prepare students to acquire the language while using the context of any subject matter, so students learn the language by using it within specific context rather than learning the language in isolation. This approach is used for children and adults in schools settings or classes for students learning English for specific purposes.
The students that are bilingual are can range from being fluent to in the process of learning another language. These learners are in the process/know the English language but they have difficulty in often make mechanical errors with their grammar and syntax. The goal of the ELL program is a high intensity language program designed to help students to improve their level of English. The English language is complex and learning it is a long process. ELL students should be taught with strategies such as learning through speaking and listening.
The digital age increases the chance of a higher standard of living, thus, everybody wants to learn the language of opportunity. They seek to improve primary skills: reading, speaking, writing, and listening in the English language. The reading comprehension is considered an issue for English as a second language learners (ESL). In the education settings, teachers use different learning theories to develop reading comprehension of ESL students. In the current digital era, there is a learning theory direction which seek to improve reading skill called the connectionist model or connectivism.
Decolonizing and Restructuring English Education in India. Abstract We have, in this paper, tried to discuss how colonization, thanks to Macaulay’s Minute has impacted the educational system in India over the past few centuries and the need to restructure the English education in India. It has been observed that introduction of Indian writings in English in addition to the original English writings to a large extent can help us learn English well. Key Words: Decolonization, English language, Indian education system, Macaulay’s Minute, teachers, Indian writings in English Introduction India is a country with a long history in English speaking. But, the story of how English came to India is still contested a issue and an ideological debate in